Annotation of res/PP-compiler.tex, revision 1.15

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                     18: 
                     19: \title{\bf PP \emph{Compilation Techniques for Robust Embedded Systems}}
                     20: 
1.13      knoop      21: \author{{\sc Jens Knoop and Andreas Krall}\\
                     22: \{knoop,andi\}@complang.tuwien.ac.at
1.1       andi       23: }
                     24: 
                     25: \bibliographystyle{unsrt}
                     26: 
                     27: \begin{document}
                     28: \maketitle
                     29: 
1.10      knoop      30: PP leader: \emph{Jens Knoop and Andreas Krall (beide E185.1)}
1.1       andi       31: 
1.10      knoop      32: Associated researchers: \emph{Anton Ertl (E185.1), Bernhard Gramlich (E185.2)}
1.1       andi       33: 
                     34: 
                     35: 
                     36: \subsubsection*{Motivation:} 
                     37: %\emph{Informal description of the purpose of the PP (3-5 lines)}
                     38: Every embedded system consists of software which is written in a high
                     39: level language, compiled to machine language and executed on a
1.10      knoop      40: processor. For robust embedded systems new verified analysis and
                     41: compilation, simulation, and specification methods are necessary to
                     42: support the programmer during application development and maintenance
                     43: and to optimize for performance, power, space, concurrency and
                     44: reliability during compilation.
                     45: %for short, new programming and
                     46: %compilation techniques for robust embedded systems development and
                     47: %deployment.
1.1       andi       48: 
                     49: \subsubsection*{State of the art and related work:} 
                     50: %\emph{Briefly describe the scientific state of the art (20-30 lines)}
                     51: 
1.2       andi       52: %Compilation Techniques for Reliability
                     53: Because of the exponential increase of the number of transistors and
                     54: the continuing decrease of the feature sizes of current processors
1.10      knoop      55: \emph{soft errors} mainly caused by energetic particles are becoming an
1.2       andi       56: important design issue for robust embedded systems. Blome et
                     57: al.~\cite{Blome+06} observed that a majority of faults that affect the
                     58: architectural state of a processor come from the register file. Lee
1.10      knoop      59: and Shrivastava \cite{LeeShrivastava09a,LeeShrivastava09c} proposed
                     60: different solutions to cope with this problem. The first assigns
                     61: variables depending on their lifetime to either the ECC protected or
                     62: the unprotected part of a register file to balance energy consumption
                     63: and reliability \cite{LeeShrivastava09a}.  The second spills registers
                     64: to ECC protected memory if the register contents are not used for a
                     65: long period \cite{LeeShrivastava09c}.  There exist complete software
                     66: solutions which use different forms of code duplications
                     67: \cite{Oh+02a,Reis+05}, which do failure virtualization
                     68: \cite{WapplerMueller08} or which use techniques like control flow
                     69: checking \cite{Oh+02b}. A complete overview of processor description
                     70: languages and generation of compilers and simulators from processor
                     71: specifications gives the book of Mishra and Dutt \cite{MishraDutt08}.
1.4       andi       72: A good survey of current instruction set simulators gives our chapter
1.10      knoop      73: in the \emph{Handbook of Signal Processing systems} \cite{BrHoKr09}. A
                     74: famous instruction set simulator with modelling of energy consumption
                     75: is \emph{Wattch} \cite{BrooksTiwariMartonosi00}.
                     76: 
                     77: Methods for \emph{compiler verification} do exist
                     78: \cite{Langmaack97a,Po-lncs124,MMO-lncs1283,Goos:99:verifix,Goos:00:ASM,1328444}. 
                     79: Most notably are the pioneering approaches of the
                     80: \emph{ProCoS} \cite{Langmaack96a} and the \emph{Verifix}
1.13      knoop      81: \cite{Goerigk-et-al:CC96,GlesnerGoosZimmeermann04,GoosZimmermann00} projects, and more recently of 
1.10      knoop      82: the \emph{CompCert} project \cite{CompCert,BDL-fm06,Le-popl06}. There
                     83: is also a rich body of work on the related approaches of
                     84: \emph{translation validation}
1.14      knoop      85: \cite{Pnueli98a,Pnueli98b,Ne-pldi00,ZaksPnueli08}, 
1.13      knoop      86: \emph{certifying compilation} 
1.10      knoop      87: \cite{NL-pldi98,Colby-etal-pldi00,BlechPoetzsch07}, and
                     88: \emph{proof-carrying code} \cite{Ne-popl97,AF-popl00,FNSG-tlfi07}. 
1.13      knoop      89: However, an integratedly verified compiler, which is optimizing and
                     90: ensures non-functional program properties such as on time and space
1.14      knoop      91: resources required by the compiled program is still
1.13      knoop      92: missing. Complementary to these approaches are approaches focusing on
                     93: frameworks for verifying compiler optimizations
                     94: \cite{781156,1040335,Kundu+09} or the verification of specific
1.14      knoop      95: compiler optimizations, such as the \emph{Lazy Code Motion}
1.13      knoop      96: \cite{TristanLeroy09} or instruction scheduling
                     97: \cite{TristanLeroy08}. By far more ambitious and a grand challenge for
                     98: computing research is Tony Hoare's vision of a \emph{verifying
                     99: compiler} which proves properties of the translated program
                    100: \cite{Hoare03}.
                    101: 
1.14      knoop     102: \emph{Resource analysis}, especially worst-case execution time analysis $($WCET$)$ for real-time systems, which are often safety-critical, is a vibrant field of research in academia and industry and of fast growing economical relevance,
1.10      knoop     103: especially in the avionics and automotive industry. A survey on
                    104: state-of-the-art tools and methods for WCET analysis has recently been
                    105: given by Wilhelm et al.~\cite{Wilhelm:TECS2008}. The outcomes of the
                    106: WCET Tool Challenges \cite{Gus:ISoLA2006,Holsti:WCET2008}, however,
                    107: demonstrate that all these tools have their own strengths and
                    108: limitations. In particular, they all rely to some extent on
                    109: user-assistance and thus a \emph{trusted information basis} guiding
                    110: the WCET analysis \cite{Prantl:WCET2009}.
                    111: 
1.1       andi      112: 
1.13      knoop     113: %\paragraph{AK}
                    114: %Three aspects of program and compiler correctness exist. The verifying
                    115: %compiler proves properties of the translated program and is a grand challenge
                    116: %for computing research \cite{Hoare03}. A certified compiler like Verifix is
                    117: %proven once to do semantically equivalent optimizations and translations
                    118: %\cite{GlesnerGoosZimmeermann04,GoosZimmermann00}. Translation validation proves
                    119: %at every compiler run that the translation is correct and was introduced by
                    120: %Pnueli et al.\ \cite{Pnueli98a,Pnueli98b} and Necula \cite{Necula00}. Until now
                    121: %some optimizations have been verified, recently lazy code motion
                    122: %\cite{TristanLeroy09}, instruction scheduling \cite{TristanLeroy08}, or the whole
                    123: %code generation phase \cite{BlechPoetzsch07}. Another research direction is the
                    124: %construction of general frameworks for validation \cite{ZaksPnueli08} or
                    125: %generalizations like parameterized equivalence checking \cite{Kundu+09}.
1.9       andi      126:  
1.7       andi      127: 
1.13      knoop     128: 
                    129: 
1.1       andi      130: \subsubsection*{Previous achievements:} 
                    131: %\emph{Brief description of your own contributions to the related
                    132: %scientific state-of-the art (5-10 lines)}
1.10      knoop     133: Jens Knoop's research focuses on proven correct and optimal program
                    134: analyses and optimizations \cite{Kn-lncs1428}. He is the co-inventor
                    135: of the \emph{Lazy Code Motion}
1.13      knoop     136: \cite{KRS-pldi92,KRS-retrolcm04,XueK06}, and numerous other program
                    137: analyses and optimizations including
                    138: \emph{partial dead-code elimination}  \cite{KRS-pldi94} and 
                    139: \emph{partially redundant assignment elimination} \cite{KRS-pldi94}, 
                    140: which are now part of state-of-the-art compilers. Regarding the
                    141: present PP, particularly important are the achievements on
                    142: resource-aware program analyes and optimizations including the
                    143: code-size sensitive \emph{Sparse Code Motion} \cite{RKS-popl00}, and its 
                    144: counterpart for \emph{Speculative Code Motion} \cite{scholz04}.
                    145: Recent research in the frame of the FWF project CoSTA and the EU FP7
                    146: project ALL-TIMES focuses on compiler support for
1.10      knoop     147: \emph{worst-case execution time analysis} for safety-critical
                    148: real-time embedded systems
1.13      knoop     149: \cite{Prantl:WCET2009,SchrSchoKn09,Prantl:WLPE2008,prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657,kirner_et_al:DSP:2007:1197}.
                    150: 
                    151: % He served on $50+$ 
                    152: %programme committees of international conferences including PLDI, CC,
                    153: %TACAS, Formal Methods, and Supercomputing. He was the General Chair of
                    154: %PLDI'02 and ETAPS'06, and is Programme Committee Co-Chair of PACT'10. He is the
                    155: %iniator and co-founder of the annual workshop series on
                    156: %\emph{Compiler Optimization meets Compiler Verification} (since 2002),
                    157: %co-organizer of 4 Dagstuhl seminars, most recently on \emph{Verifying
                    158: %Optimizing Compilation}, and a member of the European Network of
                    159: %Excellence HiPEAC.
1.10      knoop     160: %, and the IFIP WG 2.4 \emph{Software Implementation Technology}.
1.1       andi      161: 
                    162: Andreas Krall does research in the area of architecture description
                    163: languages and the automatic generation of highly optimizing compilers,
                    164: efficient instruction set simulators and hardware from one single
                    165: specification of a processor \cite{BrFeKrRi09,BrEbKr07,FaKrHo07,
                    166: FarKrStBrand06,Krall+04micro}. An important focus is on optimization
                    167: techniques for embedded processors
1.13      knoop     168: \cite{EbBrSchKrWiKa08,MeKr07,PrKrHo06,HiKr03} as he leads the Christian
1.1       andi      169: Doppler research laboratory {\em compilation techniques for embedded
                    170: processors} with partners from industry (Infineon, OnDemand
                    171: Microelectronics).
                    172: 
1.15    ! knoop     173: The PP is designed to synergetically combine the complementary
        !           174: expertises of Jens Knoop on verified resource-aware program analyses
        !           175: and optimizations and of Andreas Krall on compilation techniques for
        !           176: embedded processors. Their complementary expertise is essential for
        !           177: the PP.
1.13      knoop     178: 
1.1       andi      179: 
                    180: \subsubsection*{Goals (first 4 years):}
                    181: %\emph{Description of the research 
                    182: %topics to be addressed during the first 4 years. Make sure to explicitly 
                    183: %stress what the significant additions to the scientific knowledge are, 
                    184: %and why they are important. (30-40 lines)}
1.13      knoop     185: The goals of the first 4 years are as follows:
1.1       andi      186: 
1.13      knoop     187: \begin{itemize}
                    188: \item New modeling and representation techniques of non-functional 
                    189:       program and system properties on the programming and
                    190:       intermediate language levels
                    191: \item Definitions and measures of non-functional program and system
                    192:       properties (performance, time, space/memory, power,
                    193:       concurrency).
                    194: \item Modeling and representation of these properties alongside 
                    195:       with the programming languages semantics 
                    196: \item Adapting and enhancing state-of-the-art compilation techniques 
                    197:       towards non-functional property and platform awareness
                    198: \item New functional and non-functional property and platform-aware 
                    199:       compilation techniques
                    200: \item Analyses for non-functional program and system properties 
                    201: \item Functional and non-functional property and platform-aware 
                    202:       code generation techniques
                    203: \item Enabling validation and verification throughout the compilation
                    204:       process 
                    205: \item Techniques for reducing or eliminating trusted code,
                    206:       annotation, etc., bases
                    207: \end{itemize}
                    208: These goals are essential for making the development and the
                    209: compilation of embedded systems software more reliable and
                    210: robust. Moreover, they are the basis for the second 4 years extension
                    211: of the project.
1.1       andi      212: 
                    213: 
                    214: \subsubsection*{Work Plan (first 4 years):}
                    215: %\emph{Brief description of how 
                    216: %you intend to conduct the actual research during the first 4 years. Be sure 
                    217: %to also describe and (coarsely) quantify the resources (staff, cost of 
                    218: %special equipment) required for this work in a table. (20-30 lines)}
1.11      knoop     219: Compilation techniques for robust embedded systems comprise different
                    220: areas.  Therefore, the project is divided into three work packages:
1.13      knoop     221: \emph{compilation and simulation techniques for reliability}, \emph{verified
                    222: compilation} and \emph{resource analysis}.
1.1       andi      223: 
1.5       andi      224: \paragraph*{WP1 - Compilation and Simulation Techniques for Reliability}
1.1       andi      225: 
1.6       andi      226: In previous work we have developed a processor description language
                    227: with a very concise semantics from where we automatically generate
                    228: optimized compilers \cite{BrEbKr07} and high efficient instruction set
                    229: simulators \cite{BrFeKrRi09}. This environment we use as testbed for
                    230: our compiler optimizations for embedded processors
                    231: \cite{EbBrSchKrWiKa08,PrKrHo06,MeKr07}. We will extend this
                    232: environment to do research on compilation and simulation techniques to
                    233: enhance the reliability of processor/memory systems by mixed
                    234: hardware/software and pure software techniques. 
1.1       andi      235: 
1.5       andi      236: \begin{itemize}
                    237: \item Specification method to specify an energy consumption model in
                    238:       a processor specification.
                    239: \item Specification method for redundancy and error correction in the
                    240:       processor specification
                    241: \item Specification method for fault injection and fault checking in
                    242:       the processor specification
                    243: \item Generation of optimized instruction set simulators from the
1.6       andi      244:       extended processor specification
                    245: \item Generation of optimizing compilers from the extended processor
                    246:       specification
1.5       andi      247: \item Research into new compiler optimizations to increase reliability by
                    248:       pure software solutions, mixed hardware/software solutions and
                    249:       balancing performance, code space, reliability and energy consumption
                    250: \item Research of correctness proofs and validation of the new optimizations
                    251: 
                    252: \end{itemize}
                    253: 
                    254: \paragraph*{WP2 - Verified Compilation}
                    255: 
1.8       andi      256: Suitable semantics are necessary which support efficient translation
1.11      knoop     257: validation or support easy verification of a compiler. We will
                    258: research into different semantics and into mappings between the
                    259: semantics of our processor description language \cite{BrEbKr07} and a
                    260: compiler backend semantics, intermediate representation semantics
                    261: (compatible to LLVM) and source language semantics. The main research
                    262: will be on verification and translation validation for all kinds of
                    263: compiler optimizations.
1.8       andi      264: 
                    265: \begin{itemize}
                    266: \item Evaluate different semantics regarding suitability for compiler
                    267:       verification and translation validation, eventually develop new
                    268:       semantics
                    269: \item Develop a translator for an automatic mapping from our processor
                    270:       description language into verification semantics
                    271: \item Develop a validation system from the intermediate representation
                    272:       (LLVM) to the processor semantics
                    273: \item Develop a validation system from the source language (C) to the
                    274:       intermediate representation (LLVM)
                    275: \item Research into verification and translation validation for different
                    276:       frontend and backend optimizations
                    277: \end{itemize}
1.5       andi      278: 
1.11      knoop     279: \paragraph*{WP3 - Resource Analysis}
                    280: For safety-critical real-time embedded sytems resource consumption
                    281: measured in terms of a quantitative aspect of a program execution such
                    282: as execution time, storage use, and power consumption belongs rather
                    283: to the functional properties of an application rather its
                    284: non-functional ones. Formal guarantees on resource consumption are
                    285: thus essential and mandatory to ensure the robustness of such
                    286: systems. This requires new and usually more complex but more
                    287: expressive program analyses and transformations to support the (1)
                    288: programmer during source code development by early and automatically
                    289: providing hints on resource consumption and (2) the compiler to
                    290: optimize for resource consumption. In our previous work we focused on
                    291: compiler support for
1.14      knoop     292: \emph{worst-case execution time analysis $($WCET$)$} \cite{Prantl:WCET2009,Prantl:WLPE2008,prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657}. Based on this work we will extend this research towards 
1.11      knoop     293: other quantitive aspects of resource consumption, especially storage
                    294: usage, towards these two global objectives, using the programming
                    295: environment used there as testbed for implementation
                    296: \cite{Prantl:WCET2009,Prantl:WLPE2008,prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657}.
                    297: 
                    298: \begin{itemize}
                    299: \item Research into new program analyses for providing high-quality
                    300:       bounds on resourse consumption which are useful for both the
                    301:       application programmer and the compiler.
                    302: \item Research new program analyses and static optimizations 
                    303:       to optimize for resource consumption and to help complying to
                    304:       possibly given limits.
                    305: \item Research suitable abstraction levels of interfaces and modes
                    306:       of interaction between fully automatic program analysis and
                    307:       verification methods and semi-automatic ones relying on
                    308:       user-assistance because of undecidability issues
                    309: \item Research the synergies and the trade-off between fully 
                    310:       automatic program analysis and verification methods and
                    311:       semi-automatic ones utilizing user-assistance on high-quality
                    312:       resource bounds and the computational costs to compute them.
                    313: \item Research simulation and profiling methods to assess the 
1.13      knoop     314:       quality of resource consumption analyses and to support 
                    315:       correctness and security checks at run-time. 
1.11      knoop     316: \end{itemize}
                    317: Overall, this WP will contribute to the design, foundations,
                    318: verification, implementation, and application of resource analyses.
                    319: 
1.1       andi      320: 
1.2       andi      321: 
1.1       andi      322: 
                    323: \begin{tabular}{llll}
1.5       andi      324: \\
1.1       andi      325: \hline
1.2       andi      326: {\bf Pos} & {\bf Type} & {\bf Description}    & {\bf Duration} \\
                    327: NN1 & PhD & reliable compilation / simulation & 4 years \\
1.5       andi      328: NN2 & PhD & verified compilation              & 4 years \\
1.14      knoop     329: NN3 & PhD & resource analysis                 & 4 years \\
1.1       andi      330: \hline
                    331: \end{tabular}
                    332: 
                    333: 
                    334: \subsubsection*{Goals (last 4 years):}
                    335: %\emph{Brief description of the 
1.12      andi      336: %research topics to be addressed during the last 4 years. Make sure to 
1.1       andi      337: %explicitly stress what the significant additions to the scientific 
                    338: %knowledge are, and why they are important. (20-30 lines)}
                    339: 
1.12      andi      340: In the last 4 years we will extend the research of the first years into
                    341: some additional directions like
                    342: 
                    343: \begin{itemize}
                    344: \item New programming languages and compilers for RESs
                    345: \item Non-functional properties and requirements as first-class language and
                    346:       compiler citizens
                    347: \item New compilation techniques enabling a uniform and integrated approach
                    348:       for ensuring functional and non-functional program and system requirements
                    349: \item Verified compilers, proof-carrying code, verifying compilation for RESs
                    350: \item Making legacy applications fit to and available on RESs
                    351: \item Techniques for adjusting and decompiling legacy applications
                    352: \end{itemize}
                    353: 
                    354: Application of the results of this research reduces the cost of the
                    355: development of reliable and correct embedded systems and makes them
                    356: safer and robust.
1.1       andi      357: 
                    358: \subsubsection*{Collaboration with other PPs:}
                    359: %\emph{List the PPs you are expecting to collaborate with, and describe briefly
                    360: %the topic and  nature of such a collaboration. (10-20 lines)}
                    361: 
                    362: \begin{itemize}
                    363: \item PP Composition of Non-functional Requirements [I.S.T.A./Henzinger]:
                    364:       Links to specification and modeling of timing properties, to execution
                    365:       models, hardware and software models.
                    366: \item PP Composition and Predictability in RES Architectures
1.14      knoop     367:       [E182.1/Puschner]: Links to hard- and software models for time
1.1       andi      368:       predictable systems, verification of timing behaviour.
                    369: \item PP Formal Verification for Robustness [E184/Veith]: Links to software
1.10      knoop     370:       model-checking and testing of code (on source code and intermediate
1.1       andi      371:       code levels), support for program analysis and transformation.
1.14      knoop     372: \item PP Modeling \& Analysis of Robust Distributed Systems [E182.2/Schmid]:
1.1       andi      373:       Links to functional and non-functional system requirements,
                    374:       distribution, concurrency.
                    375: \end{itemize}
                    376: 
                    377: \subsubsection*{External Collaborations:}
                    378: %\emph{List envisioned international  and national collaborations, and
                    379: %describe briefly the topic and nature  of such a collaboration. (5-10
                    380: %lines)}
1.10      knoop     381: \begin{itemize}
1.12      andi      382: \item Walter Binder, University of Lugano, Switzerland (resource analysis)
                    383: \item Sabine Glesner, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany (verified compilation)
                    384: \item Aviral Shrivastava, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA (reliable compilation)
1.10      knoop     385: \item Wolf Zimmermann, Martin-Luther Universit\"at Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany
1.12      andi      386:       (verified compilation)
1.10      knoop     387: \end{itemize}
1.1       andi      388: 
                    389: \begin{comment}
                    390: %Bitte hier die Bibtex-Entries  einfuellen, z.B.,
                    391: 
                    392: 
                    393: ------------------------------------
                    394: 
                    395: @article{Hoare,
                    396:  author = {Tony Hoare},
                    397:  title = {The verifying compiler: A grand challenge for computing research},
                    398:  journal = {Journal of the ACM},
                    399:  volume = {50},
                    400:  number = {1},
                    401:  year = {2003},
                    402:  issn = {0004-5411},
                    403:  pages = {63--69},
                    404:  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/602382.602403},
                    405:  publisher = {ACM},
                    406:  address = {New York, NY, USA},
                    407:  }
                    408:  
                    409:  @article{1328444,
                    410:  author = {Jean-Baptiste Tristan and Xavier Leroy},
                    411:  title = {Formal verification of translation validators: a case study on instruction scheduling optimizations},
                    412:  journal = {SIGPLAN Not.},
                    413:  volume = {43},
                    414:  number = {1},
                    415:  year = {2008},
                    416:  issn = {0362-1340},
                    417:  pages = {17--27},
                    418:  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328897.1328444},
                    419:  publisher = {ACM},
                    420:  address = {New York, NY, USA},
                    421:  }
                    422:  
                    423:  @article{1314860,
                    424:  author = {Jan Olaf Blech and Arnd Poetzsch-Heffter},
                    425:  title = {A Certifying Code Generation Phase},
                    426:  journal = {Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci.},
                    427:  volume = {190},
                    428:  number = {4},
                    429:  year = {2007},
                    430:  issn = {1571-0661},
                    431:  pages = {65--82},
                    432:  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.entcs.2007.09.008},
                    433:  publisher = {Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.},
                    434:  address = {Amsterdam, The Netherlands, The Netherlands},
                    435:  }
                    436:  
                    437: @INPROCEEDINGS{LeeShrivastava09,
                    438:         TITLE       = {A Compiler Optimization to Reduce Soft Errors in Register Files},
                    439:         AUTHOR      = {Jongeun Lee and Aviral Shrivastava},
                    440:         BOOKTITLE   = {ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems},
                    441:         EDITOR      = {Mahmut Kandemir},
                    442:         PUBLISHER   = {ACM},
                    443:         PAGES       = {??--??},
                    444:         ADDRESS     = {Dublin},
                    445:         MONTH       = {June},
                    446:         YEAR        = {2009},
                    447: }
                    448: 
                    449: @BOOK{MishraDutt08,
                    450:         TITLE       = {Processor Description Languages},
                    451:         AUTHOR      = {Prabhat Mishra and Nikil Dutt (Editor)},
                    452:         PUBLISHER   = {Morgan Kaufmann},
                    453:         YEAR        = {2008},
                    454: }
                    455: 
                    456: 
                    457: 
                    458: %Eigene Referenzen ab hier.
                    459: 
                    460: @InProceedings{SchrSchoKn09,
                    461:         TITLE       = "Adding Timing-Awareness to {AUTOSAR} Basic-Software - A Component Based Approach",
                    462:         AUTHOR      = "Dietmar Schreiner and Markus Schordan and Jens Knoop",
                    463:         BOOKTITLE   = "12th IEEE International Symposium on Object/component/service-oriented
                    464:                        Real-time distributed Computing (ISORC 2009)",
                    465:         PUBLISHER   = "IEEE",
                    466:         ADDRESS     = "Tokyo, Japan",
                    467:         YEAR        = "2009",
                    468:         MONTH       = "March",
                    469:         PAGES       = "288--292",
                    470: }
                    471: 
                    472: @inproceedings{Prantl:WLPE2008,
                    473:        Address = {Udine, Italy},
                    474:        Author = {Adrian Prantl and Jens Knoop and Markus Schordan and Markus Triska},
                    475:        Booktitle = {The 18th Workshop on Logic-based methods in Programming Environments (WLPE 2008)},
                    476:        Month = {December 12},
                    477:        Title = {Constraint solving for high-level WCET analysis},
                    478:        Year = {2008},
                    479:         URL = {http://costa.tuwien.ac.at/papers/wlpe08.pdf}
                    480: }
                    481: 
                    482: @InProceedings{prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,
                    483:   author =     "Adrian Prantl and Markus Schordan and Jens Knoop",
                    484:   title =      "TuBound - {A} Conceptually New Tool for Worst-Case
                    485:                 Execution Time Analysis",
                    486:   booktitle =  "8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET)
                    487:                 Analysis",
                    488:   year =       "2008",
                    489:   editor =     "Raimund Kirner",
                    490:   publisher =  "Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik,
                    491:                 Germany",
                    492:   address =    "Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    493:   URL =        "http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2008/1661",
                    494:   annote =     "Keywords: Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis,
                    495:                 Tool Chain, Flow Constraints, Source-To-Source",
                    496:   ISBN =       "978-3-939897-10-1",
                    497:   note =       "also published in print by Austrian Computer Society
                    498:                 (OCG) under ISBN 978-3-85403-237-3",
                    499: }
                    500: 
                    501: @InProceedings{kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657,
                    502:   author =     "Raimund Kirner and Albrecht Kadlec and Adrian Prantl
                    503:                 and Markus Schordan and Jens Knoop",
                    504:   title =      "Towards a Common {WCET} Annotation Language: Essential
                    505:                 Ingredients",
                    506:   booktitle =  "8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET)
                    507:                 Analysis",
                    508:   year =       "2008",
                    509:   editor =     "Raimund Kirner",
                    510:   publisher =  "Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik,
                    511:                 Germany",
                    512:   address =    "Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    513:   URL =        "http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2008/1657",
                    514:   annote =     "Keywords: Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis,
                    515:                 annotation languages, WCET annotation language
                    516:                 challenge",
                    517:   ISBN =       "978-3-939897-10-1",
                    518:   note =       "also published in print by Austrian Computer Society
                    519:                 (OCG) under ISBN 978-3-85403-237-3",
                    520: }
                    521: 
                    522: @InProceedings{kirner_et_al:DSP:2007:1197,
                    523:   author =     "Raimund Kirner and Jens Knoop and Adrian Prantl and
                    524:                 Markus Schordan and Ingomar Wenzel",
                    525:   title =      "{WCET} Analysis: The Annotation Language Challenge",
                    526:   booktitle =  "7th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET)
                    527:                 Analysis",
                    528:   year =       "2007",
                    529:   editor =     "Christine Rochange",
                    530:   publisher =  "Internationales Begegnungs- und Forschungszentrum
                    531:                 f{"u}r Informatik (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    532:   address =    "Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    533:   URL =        "http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2007/1197",
                    534:   annote =     "Keywords: Worst-case execution time analysis, WCET,
                    535:                 path description, annotation language challenge,
                    536:                 expressiveness, convenience",
                    537: }
                    538: 
                    539: 
                    540: @InProceedings{knoop:DSP:2008:1575,
                    541:   author =     {Jens Knoop},
                    542:   title =      {Data-Flow Analysis for Multi-Core Computing Systems: A Reminder to Reverse Data-Flow Analysis},
                    543:   booktitle =  {Scalable Program Analysis},
                    544:   year =       {2008},
                    545:   editor =     {Florian Martin and Hanne Riis Nielson and Claudio Riva and Markus Schordan},
                    546:   number =     {08161},
                    547:   series =     {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings},
                    548:   ISSN =       {1862-4405},
                    549:   publisher =  {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, Germany},
                    550:   address =    {Dagstuhl, Germany},
                    551:   URL =                {http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2008/1575},
                    552:   annote =     {Keywords: Multi-core computing systems, scalable program analysis, reverse data-flow analysis, demand-driven data-flow analysis}
                    553: }
                    554: 
                    555: @InProceedings{conf/cc/XueK06,
                    556:   title =      "A Fresh Look at {PRE} as a Maximum Flow Problem",
                    557:   author =     "Jingling Xue and Jens Knoop",
                    558:   bibdate =    "2006-04-05",
                    559:   bibsource =  "DBLP,
                    560:                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/cc/cc2006.html#XueK06",
                    561:   booktitle =  "CC",
                    562:   booktitle =  "Compiler Construction, 15th International Conference,
                    563:                 {CC} 2006, Held as Part of the Joint European
                    564:                 Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, {ETAPS}
                    565:                 2006, Vienna, Austria, March 30-31, 2006, Proceedings",
                    566:   publisher =  "Springer",
                    567:   year =       "2006",
                    568:   volume =     "3923",
                    569:   editor =     "Alan Mycroft and Andreas Zeller",
                    570:   ISBN =       "3-540-33050-X",
                    571:   pages =      "139--154",
                    572:   series =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
                    573:   URL =        "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11688839_13",
                    574: }
                    575: 
                    576: @InProceedings{scholz04,
                    577:   author =     "Bernhard Scholz and Nigel Horspool and Jens Knoop",
                    578:   title =      "Optimizing for space and time usage with speculative
                    579:                 partial redundancy elimination",
                    580:   booktitle =  "LCTES '04: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED
                    581:                 conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems",
                    582:   year =       "2004",
                    583:   ISBN =       "1-58113-806-7",
                    584:   pages =      "221--230",
                    585:   location =   "Washington, DC, USA",
                    586:   publisher =  "ACM Press",
                    587: }
                    588: 
                    589: @InProceedings{HiKr03,
                    590:         TITLE       = "{VLIW} Operation Refinement for Reducing Energy Consumption",
                    591:         AUTHOR      = "Ulrich Hirnschrott and Andreas Krall",
                    592:         BOOKTITLE   = "International Symposium on System-on Chip",
                    593:         PUBLISHER   = "IEEE",
                    594:         ADDRESS     = "Tampere, Finland",
                    595:         YEAR        = "2003",
                    596:         PAGES       = "131--134",
                    597: }
                    598: 
                    599: @Article{Krall+04micro,
                    600:   author =       {Andreas Krall and Ulrich Hirnschrott and Christian Panis and Ivan Pryanishnikov},
                    601:   title =        {x{DSP}core: {A} {C}ompiler-{B}ased {C}onfigureable {D}igital {S}ignal {P}rocessor},
                    602:   journal =      {IEEE Micro},
                    603:   year =         {2004},
                    604:   OPTkey =       {},
                    605:   volume =       {24},
                    606:   number =       {4},
                    607:   pages =        {67-78},
                    608:   month =        {July/August},
                    609:   OPTnote =      {},
                    610:   OPTannote =    {},
                    611: }
                    612: 
                    613: @INPROCEEDINGS{FarKrStBrand06,
                    614:         TITLE       = {Effective Compiler Generation by Architecture Description},
                    615:         AUTHOR      = {Stefan Farfeleder and Andreas Krall and Edwin Steiner and Florian Brandner},
                    616:         BOOKTITLE   = {ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems},
                    617:         EDITOR      = {Koen De Bosschere},
                    618:         PUBLISHER   = {ACM},
                    619:         PAGES       = {145--152},
                    620:         ADDRESS     = {Ottawa},
                    621:         MONTH       = {June},
                    622:         YEAR        = {2006},
                    623:         URL         = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1134650.1134671},
                    624: }
                    625: 
                    626: @ARTICLE{PrKrHo06,
                    627:         AUTHOR      = {Ivan Pryanishnikov and Andreas Krall and Nigel Horspool},
                    628:         TITLE       = {Compiler Optimizations for Processors with {SIMD} Instructions},
                    629:         JOURNAL     = {Software---Practice and Experience},
                    630:         PUBLISHER   = {Wiley},
                    631:         VOLUME      = {37},
                    632:         NUMBER      = {1},
                    633:         PAGES       = {93--113},
                    634:         YEAR        = {2007},
                    635:         URL         = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112783581/PDFSTART},
                    636: }
                    637: 
                    638: @ARTICLE{FaKrHo07,
                    639:         AUTHOR      = {Stefan Farfeleder and Andreas Krall and Nigel Horspool},
                    640:         TITLE       = {Ultra Fast Cycle-Accurate Compiled Emulation of Inorder Pipelined Architectures},
                    641:         JOURNAL     = {Journal of Systems Architecture},
                    642:         PUBLISHER   = {Elsevier},
                    643:         VOLUME      = {53},
                    644:         NUMBER      = {8},
                    645:         PAGES       = {501--510},
                    646:         YEAR        = {2007},
                    647: }
                    648: 
                    649: @INPROCEEDINGS{MeKr07,
                    650:         TITLE       = {Instruction Set Encoding Optimization for Code Size Reduction},
                    651:         AUTHOR      = {Michael Med and Andreas Krall},
                    652:         BOOKTITLE   = {International Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation},
                    653:         ADDRESS     = {Samos, Greece},
                    654:         PAGES       = {9--17},
                    655:         MONTH       = {July},
                    656:         YEAR        = {2007}
                    657: }
                    658: 
                    659: @INPROCEEDINGS{BrEbKr07,
                    660:         TITLE       = {Compiler Generation from Structural Architecture Descriptions},
                    661:         AUTHOR      = {Florian Brandner and Dietmar Ebner and Andreas Krall},
                    662:         BOOKTITLE   = {International Conference on Compilers, Architecture, and Synthesis for Embedded Systems},
                    663:         ADDRESS     = {Salzburg, Austria},
                    664:         PAGES       = {13--22},
                    665:         MONTH       = {September},
                    666:         YEAR        = {2007}
                    667: }
                    668: 
                    669: @INPROCEEDINGS{EbBrSchKrWiKa08,
                    670:         TITLE       = {Generalized Instruction Selection using {SSA}-Graphs},
                    671:         AUTHOR      = {Dietmar Ebner and Florian Brandner and Bernhard Scholz and Andreas Krall and Peter Wiedermann and Albrecht Kadlec},
                    672:         BOOKTITLE   = {ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems},
                    673:         EDITOR      = {John Regehr},
                    674:         PUBLISHER   = {ACM},
                    675:         PAGES       = {31--40},
                    676:         ADDRESS     = {Tucson},
                    677:         MONTH       = {June},
                    678:         YEAR        = {2008},
                    679: }
                    680: 
                    681: @INPROCEEDINGS{BrFeKrRi09,
                    682:         TITLE       = {Fast and Accurate Simulation using the LLVM Compiler Framework},
                    683:         AUTHOR      = {Florian Brandner and Andreas Fellnhofer and Andreas Krall and David Riegler},
                    684:         BOOKTITLE   = {Rapid Simulation and Performance Evaluation: Methods and Tools (RAPIDO'09)},
                    685:         EDITOR      = {Smail Niar, Rainer Leupers, Olivier Temam},
                    686:         PUBLISHER   = {HiPEAC},
                    687:         PAGES       = {1--6},
                    688:         ADDRESS     = {Paphos, Cyprus},
                    689:         MONTH       = {January},
                    690:         YEAR        = {2009},
                    691: }
                    692: \end{comment}
                    693: 
                    694: \bibliography{res}    % Input von res.bib, kommt dann spaeter dazu ...
                    695: 
                    696: \end{document}

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