Annotation of res/PP-compiler.tex, revision 1.12

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                     19: 
                     20: \title{\bf PP \emph{Compilation Techniques for Robust Embedded Systems}}
                     21: 
1.6       andi       22: \author{{\sc Andreas Krall and Jens Knoop}\\
                     23: \{andi,knoop\}@complang.tuwien.ac.at
1.1       andi       24: }
                     25: 
                     26: \bibliographystyle{unsrt}
                     27: 
                     28: \begin{document}
                     29: \maketitle
                     30: 
1.10      knoop      31: PP leader: \emph{Jens Knoop and Andreas Krall (beide E185.1)}
1.1       andi       32: 
1.10      knoop      33: Associated researchers: \emph{Anton Ertl (E185.1), Bernhard Gramlich (E185.2)}
1.1       andi       34: 
                     35: 
                     36: 
                     37: \subsubsection*{Motivation:} 
                     38: %\emph{Informal description of the purpose of the PP (3-5 lines)}
                     39: Every embedded system consists of software which is written in a high
                     40: level language, compiled to machine language and executed on a
1.10      knoop      41: processor. For robust embedded systems new verified analysis and
                     42: compilation, simulation, and specification methods are necessary to
                     43: support the programmer during application development and maintenance
                     44: and to optimize for performance, power, space, concurrency and
                     45: reliability during compilation.
                     46: %for short, new programming and
                     47: %compilation techniques for robust embedded systems development and
                     48: %deployment.
1.1       andi       49: 
                     50: \subsubsection*{State of the art and related work:} 
                     51: %\emph{Briefly describe the scientific state of the art (20-30 lines)}
                     52: 
1.2       andi       53: %Compilation Techniques for Reliability
                     54: Because of the exponential increase of the number of transistors and
                     55: the continuing decrease of the feature sizes of current processors
1.10      knoop      56: \emph{soft errors} mainly caused by energetic particles are becoming an
1.2       andi       57: important design issue for robust embedded systems. Blome et
                     58: al.~\cite{Blome+06} observed that a majority of faults that affect the
                     59: architectural state of a processor come from the register file. Lee
1.10      knoop      60: and Shrivastava \cite{LeeShrivastava09a,LeeShrivastava09c} proposed
                     61: different solutions to cope with this problem. The first assigns
                     62: variables depending on their lifetime to either the ECC protected or
                     63: the unprotected part of a register file to balance energy consumption
                     64: and reliability \cite{LeeShrivastava09a}.  The second spills registers
                     65: to ECC protected memory if the register contents are not used for a
                     66: long period \cite{LeeShrivastava09c}.  There exist complete software
                     67: solutions which use different forms of code duplications
                     68: \cite{Oh+02a,Reis+05}, which do failure virtualization
                     69: \cite{WapplerMueller08} or which use techniques like control flow
                     70: checking \cite{Oh+02b}. A complete overview of processor description
                     71: languages and generation of compilers and simulators from processor
                     72: specifications gives the book of Mishra and Dutt \cite{MishraDutt08}.
1.4       andi       73: A good survey of current instruction set simulators gives our chapter
1.10      knoop      74: in the \emph{Handbook of Signal Processing systems} \cite{BrHoKr09}. A
                     75: famous instruction set simulator with modelling of energy consumption
                     76: is \emph{Wattch} \cite{BrooksTiwariMartonosi00}.
                     77: 
                     78: \paragraph{JK} 
                     79: Methods for \emph{compiler verification} do exist
                     80: \cite{Langmaack97a,Po-lncs124,MMO-lncs1283,Goos:99:verifix,Goos:00:ASM,1328444}. 
                     81: Most notably are the pioneering approaches of the
                     82: \emph{ProCoS} \cite{Langmaack96a} and the \emph{Verifix}
                     83: \cite{Goerigk-et-al:CC96} projects, and more recently of 
                     84: the \emph{CompCert} project \cite{CompCert,BDL-fm06,Le-popl06}. There
                     85: is also a rich body of work on the related approaches of
                     86: \emph{translation validation}
                     87: \cite{PSS-tacas98,Ne-pldi00}, \emph{certifying compilation} 
                     88: \cite{NL-pldi98,Colby-etal-pldi00,BlechPoetzsch07}, and
                     89: \emph{proof-carrying code} \cite{Ne-popl97,AF-popl00,FNSG-tlfi07}. 
                     90: However, an integratedly verified compiler,
                     91: which is optimizing and ensures non-functional program properties such
                     92: as on time and space ressources required by the compiled program is
                     93: still missing.
                     94: 
                     95: \emph{Worst-case execution time analysis $($WCET$)$} for real-time systems,
                     96: which are often safety-critical, is a vibrant field of research in
                     97: academia and industry and of fast growing economical relevance,
                     98: especially in the avionics and automotive industry. A survey on
                     99: state-of-the-art tools and methods for WCET analysis has recently been
                    100: given by Wilhelm et al.~\cite{Wilhelm:TECS2008}. The outcomes of the
                    101: WCET Tool Challenges \cite{Gus:ISoLA2006,Holsti:WCET2008}, however,
                    102: demonstrate that all these tools have their own strengths and
                    103: limitations. In particular, they all rely to some extent on
                    104: user-assistance and thus a \emph{trusted information basis} guiding
                    105: the WCET analysis \cite{Prantl:WCET2009}.
                    106: 
1.1       andi      107: 
1.10      knoop     108: \paragraph{AK}
1.9       andi      109: Three aspects of program and compiler correctness exist. The verifying
                    110: compiler proves properties of the translated program and is a grand challenge
1.10      knoop     111: for computing research \cite{Hoare03}. A certified compiler like Verifix is
1.9       andi      112: proven once to do semantically equivalent optimizations and translations
                    113: \cite{GlesnerGoosZimmeermann04,GoosZimmermann00}. Translation validation proves
                    114: at every compiler run that the translation is correct and was introduced by
                    115: Pnueli et al.\ \cite{Pnueli98a,Pnueli98b} and Necula \cite{Necula00}. Until now
                    116: some optimizations have been verified, recently lazy code motion
                    117: \cite{TristanLeroy09}, instruction scheduling \cite{TristanLeroy08}, or the whole
                    118: code generation phase \cite{BlechPoetzsch07}. Another research direction is the
                    119: construction of general frameworks for validation \cite{ZaksPnueli08} or
                    120: generalizations like parameterized equivalence checking \cite{Kundu+09}.
                    121:  
1.7       andi      122: 
1.1       andi      123: \subsubsection*{Previous achievements:} 
                    124: %\emph{Brief description of your own contributions to the related
                    125: %scientific state-of-the art (5-10 lines)}
1.10      knoop     126: Jens Knoop's research focuses on proven correct and optimal program
                    127: analyses and optimizations \cite{Kn-lncs1428}. He is the co-inventor
                    128: of the \emph{Lazy Code Motion}
                    129: \cite{KRS-pldi92,KRS-retrolcm04,XueK06}, the code-size sensitive
                    130: \emph{Sparse Code Motion} \cite{RKS-popl00}, and numerous other
                    131: program analyses and optimizations including
                    132: \emph{partial dead-code elimination}, \cite{KRS-pldi94}, \emph{partially redundant assignment elimination} \cite{KRS-pldi94}, and \emph{code-size sensitive 
                    133: speculative code motion} \cite{scholz04}, many of which are now part of
                    134: state-of-the-art compilers. Recent research focuses on compiler
                    135: support for
                    136: \emph{worst-case execution time analysis} for safety-critical
                    137: real-time embedded systems
                    138: \cite{Prantl:WCET2009,SchrSchoKn09,Prantl:WLPE2008,prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657,kirner_et_al:DSP:2007:1197}. He served on $50+$ 
                    139: programme committees of international conferences including PLDI, CC,
                    140: TACAS, Formal Methods, and Supercomputing. He was the General Chair of
                    141: PLDI'02 and ETAPS'06, and is Programme Committee Co-Chair of PACT'10. He is the
                    142: iniator and co-founder of the annual workshop series on
                    143: \emph{Compiler Optimization meets Compiler Verification} (since 2002),
                    144: co-organizer of 4 Dagstuhl seminars, most recently on \emph{Verifying
                    145: Optimizing Compilation}, and a member of the European Network of
                    146: Excellence HiPEAC.
                    147: %, and the IFIP WG 2.4 \emph{Software Implementation Technology}.
1.1       andi      148: 
                    149: Andreas Krall does research in the area of architecture description
                    150: languages and the automatic generation of highly optimizing compilers,
                    151: efficient instruction set simulators and hardware from one single
                    152: specification of a processor \cite{BrFeKrRi09,BrEbKr07,FaKrHo07,
                    153: FarKrStBrand06,Krall+04micro}. An important focus is on optimization
                    154: techniques for embedded processors
                    155: \cite{EbBrSchKrWiKa08,MeKr07,PrKrHo06,HiKr03} as he lead the Christian
                    156: Doppler research laboratory {\em compilation techniques for embedded
                    157: processors} with partners from industry (Infineon, OnDemand
                    158: Microelectronics).
                    159: 
                    160: 
                    161: \subsubsection*{Goals (first 4 years):}
                    162: %\emph{Description of the research 
                    163: %topics to be addressed during the first 4 years. Make sure to explicitly 
                    164: %stress what the significant additions to the scientific knowledge are, 
                    165: %and why they are important. (30-40 lines)}
                    166: 
1.11      knoop     167: New modeling and representation techniques of non-functional program
                    168: and system properties on the programming and intermediate language
                    169: levels Definitions and measures of non-functional program and system
                    170: properties (performance, time, space/memory, power, concurrency).
                    171: Modeling and representation of these properties alongside with the
                    172: programming languages semantics Adapting and enhancing
                    173: state-of-the-art compilation techniques towards non-functional
                    174: property and platform awareness New functional and non-functional
                    175: property and platform-aware compilation techniques Analyses for
                    176: non-functional program and system properties Functional and
                    177: non-functional property and platform-aware code generation techniques
                    178: Enabling validation and verification throughout the compilation
                    179: process Techniques for reducing or eliminating trusted code,
                    180: annotation, etc., bases
1.1       andi      181: 
                    182: 
                    183: \subsubsection*{Work Plan (first 4 years):}
                    184: %\emph{Brief description of how 
                    185: %you intend to conduct the actual research during the first 4 years. Be sure 
                    186: %to also describe and (coarsely) quantify the resources (staff, cost of 
                    187: %special equipment) required for this work in a table. (20-30 lines)}
                    188: 
1.11      knoop     189: Compilation techniques for robust embedded systems comprise different
                    190: areas.  Therefore, the project is divided into three work packages:
                    191: compilation and simulation techniques for reliabiltiy, verified
                    192: compilation and worst case execution time analysis.
1.1       andi      193: 
1.5       andi      194: \paragraph*{WP1 - Compilation and Simulation Techniques for Reliability}
1.1       andi      195: 
1.6       andi      196: In previous work we have developed a processor description language
                    197: with a very concise semantics from where we automatically generate
                    198: optimized compilers \cite{BrEbKr07} and high efficient instruction set
                    199: simulators \cite{BrFeKrRi09}. This environment we use as testbed for
                    200: our compiler optimizations for embedded processors
                    201: \cite{EbBrSchKrWiKa08,PrKrHo06,MeKr07}. We will extend this
                    202: environment to do research on compilation and simulation techniques to
                    203: enhance the reliability of processor/memory systems by mixed
                    204: hardware/software and pure software techniques. 
1.1       andi      205: 
1.5       andi      206: \begin{itemize}
                    207: \item Specification method to specify an energy consumption model in
                    208:       a processor specification.
                    209: \item Specification method for redundancy and error correction in the
                    210:       processor specification
                    211: \item Specification method for fault injection and fault checking in
                    212:       the processor specification
                    213: \item Generation of optimized instruction set simulators from the
1.6       andi      214:       extended processor specification
                    215: \item Generation of optimizing compilers from the extended processor
                    216:       specification
1.5       andi      217: \item Research into new compiler optimizations to increase reliability by
                    218:       pure software solutions, mixed hardware/software solutions and
                    219:       balancing performance, code space, reliability and energy consumption
                    220: \item Research of correctness proofs and validation of the new optimizations
                    221: 
                    222: \end{itemize}
                    223: 
                    224: \paragraph*{WP2 - Verified Compilation}
                    225: 
1.8       andi      226: Suitable semantics are necessary which support efficient translation
1.11      knoop     227: validation or support easy verification of a compiler. We will
                    228: research into different semantics and into mappings between the
                    229: semantics of our processor description language \cite{BrEbKr07} and a
                    230: compiler backend semantics, intermediate representation semantics
                    231: (compatible to LLVM) and source language semantics. The main research
                    232: will be on verification and translation validation for all kinds of
                    233: compiler optimizations.
1.8       andi      234: 
                    235: \begin{itemize}
                    236: \item Evaluate different semantics regarding suitability for compiler
                    237:       verification and translation validation, eventually develop new
                    238:       semantics
                    239: \item Develop a translator for an automatic mapping from our processor
                    240:       description language into verification semantics
                    241: \item Develop a validation system from the intermediate representation
                    242:       (LLVM) to the processor semantics
                    243: \item Develop a validation system from the source language (C) to the
                    244:       intermediate representation (LLVM)
                    245: \item Research into verification and translation validation for different
                    246:       frontend and backend optimizations
                    247: \end{itemize}
1.5       andi      248: 
1.11      knoop     249: \paragraph*{WP3 - Resource Analysis}
                    250: For safety-critical real-time embedded sytems resource consumption
                    251: measured in terms of a quantitative aspect of a program execution such
                    252: as execution time, storage use, and power consumption belongs rather
                    253: to the functional properties of an application rather its
                    254: non-functional ones. Formal guarantees on resource consumption are
                    255: thus essential and mandatory to ensure the robustness of such
                    256: systems. This requires new and usually more complex but more
                    257: expressive program analyses and transformations to support the (1)
                    258: programmer during source code development by early and automatically
                    259: providing hints on resource consumption and (2) the compiler to
                    260: optimize for resource consumption. In our previous work we focused on
                    261: compiler support for
                    262: \emph{worst-case execution time analysis $($WCET$)$} \cite{Prantl:WCET2009,Prantl:WLPE2008,prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657}. Based on this work and expertise we will extend this research towards 
                    263: other quantitive aspects of resource consumption, especially storage
                    264: usage, towards these two global objectives, using the programming
                    265: environment used there as testbed for implementation
                    266: \cite{Prantl:WCET2009,Prantl:WLPE2008,prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657}.
                    267: 
                    268: \begin{itemize}
                    269: \item Research into new program analyses for providing high-quality
                    270:       bounds on resourse consumption which are useful for both the
                    271:       application programmer and the compiler.
                    272: \item Research new program analyses and static optimizations 
                    273:       to optimize for resource consumption and to help complying to
                    274:       possibly given limits.
                    275: \item Research suitable abstraction levels of interfaces and modes
                    276:       of interaction between fully automatic program analysis and
                    277:       verification methods and semi-automatic ones relying on
                    278:       user-assistance because of undecidability issues
                    279: \item Research the synergies and the trade-off between fully 
                    280:       automatic program analysis and verification methods and
                    281:       semi-automatic ones utilizing user-assistance on high-quality
                    282:       resource bounds and the computational costs to compute them.
                    283: \item Research simulation and profiling methods to assess the 
                    284:       quality of resource consumption analyses.
                    285: \end{itemize}
                    286: Overall, this WP will contribute to the design, foundations,
                    287: verification, implementation, and application of resource analyses.
                    288: 
1.1       andi      289: 
1.2       andi      290: 
1.1       andi      291: 
                    292: \begin{tabular}{llll}
1.5       andi      293: \\
1.1       andi      294: \hline
1.2       andi      295: {\bf Pos} & {\bf Type} & {\bf Description}    & {\bf Duration} \\
                    296: NN1 & PhD & reliable compilation / simulation & 4 years \\
1.5       andi      297: NN2 & PhD & verified compilation              & 4 years \\
1.11      knoop     298: NN3 & PhD & Resource analysis                 & 4 years \\
1.1       andi      299: \hline
                    300: \end{tabular}
                    301: 
                    302: 
                    303: \subsubsection*{Goals (last 4 years):}
                    304: %\emph{Brief description of the 
1.12    ! andi      305: %research topics to be addressed during the last 4 years. Make sure to 
1.1       andi      306: %explicitly stress what the significant additions to the scientific 
                    307: %knowledge are, and why they are important. (20-30 lines)}
                    308: 
1.12    ! andi      309: In the last 4 years we will extend the research of the first years into
        !           310: some additional directions like
        !           311: 
        !           312: \begin{itemize}
        !           313: \item New programming languages and compilers for RESs
        !           314: \item Non-functional properties and requirements as first-class language and
        !           315:       compiler citizens
        !           316: \item New compilation techniques enabling a uniform and integrated approach
        !           317:       for ensuring functional and non-functional program and system requirements
        !           318: \item Verified compilers, proof-carrying code, verifying compilation for RESs
        !           319: \item Making legacy applications fit to and available on RESs
        !           320: \item Techniques for adjusting and decompiling legacy applications
        !           321: \end{itemize}
        !           322: 
        !           323: Application of the results of this research reduces the cost of the
        !           324: development of reliable and correct embedded systems and makes them
        !           325: safer and robust.
1.1       andi      326: 
                    327: \subsubsection*{Collaboration with other PPs:}
                    328: %\emph{List the PPs you are expecting to collaborate with, and describe briefly
                    329: %the topic and  nature of such a collaboration. (10-20 lines)}
                    330: 
                    331: \begin{itemize}
                    332: \item PP Composition of Non-functional Requirements [I.S.T.A./Henzinger]:
                    333:       Links to specification and modeling of timing properties, to execution
                    334:       models, hardware and software models.
                    335: \item PP Composition and Predictability in RES Architectures
                    336:       [E182/Puschner]: Links to hard- and software models for time
                    337:       predictable systems, verification of timing behaviour.
                    338: \item PP Formal Verification for Robustness [E184/Veith]: Links to software
1.10      knoop     339:       model-checking and testing of code (on source code and intermediate
1.1       andi      340:       code levels), support for program analysis and transformation.
                    341: \item PP Modeling \& Analysis of Robust Distributed Systems [E182/Schmid]:
                    342:       Links to functional and non-functional system requirements,
                    343:       distribution, concurrency.
                    344: \end{itemize}
                    345: 
                    346: \subsubsection*{External Collaborations:}
                    347: %\emph{List envisioned international  and national collaborations, and
                    348: %describe briefly the topic and nature  of such a collaboration. (5-10
                    349: %lines)}
1.10      knoop     350: \begin{itemize}
1.12    ! andi      351: \item Walter Binder, University of Lugano, Switzerland (resource analysis)
        !           352: \item Sabine Glesner, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany (verified compilation)
        !           353: \item Aviral Shrivastava, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA (reliable compilation)
1.10      knoop     354: \item Wolf Zimmermann, Martin-Luther Universit\"at Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany
1.12    ! andi      355:       (verified compilation)
1.10      knoop     356: \end{itemize}
1.1       andi      357: 
                    358: \begin{comment}
                    359: %Bitte hier die Bibtex-Entries  einfuellen, z.B.,
                    360: 
                    361: 
                    362: ------------------------------------
                    363: 
                    364: @article{Hoare,
                    365:  author = {Tony Hoare},
                    366:  title = {The verifying compiler: A grand challenge for computing research},
                    367:  journal = {Journal of the ACM},
                    368:  volume = {50},
                    369:  number = {1},
                    370:  year = {2003},
                    371:  issn = {0004-5411},
                    372:  pages = {63--69},
                    373:  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/602382.602403},
                    374:  publisher = {ACM},
                    375:  address = {New York, NY, USA},
                    376:  }
                    377:  
                    378:  @article{1328444,
                    379:  author = {Jean-Baptiste Tristan and Xavier Leroy},
                    380:  title = {Formal verification of translation validators: a case study on instruction scheduling optimizations},
                    381:  journal = {SIGPLAN Not.},
                    382:  volume = {43},
                    383:  number = {1},
                    384:  year = {2008},
                    385:  issn = {0362-1340},
                    386:  pages = {17--27},
                    387:  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328897.1328444},
                    388:  publisher = {ACM},
                    389:  address = {New York, NY, USA},
                    390:  }
                    391:  
                    392:  @article{1314860,
                    393:  author = {Jan Olaf Blech and Arnd Poetzsch-Heffter},
                    394:  title = {A Certifying Code Generation Phase},
                    395:  journal = {Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci.},
                    396:  volume = {190},
                    397:  number = {4},
                    398:  year = {2007},
                    399:  issn = {1571-0661},
                    400:  pages = {65--82},
                    401:  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.entcs.2007.09.008},
                    402:  publisher = {Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.},
                    403:  address = {Amsterdam, The Netherlands, The Netherlands},
                    404:  }
                    405:  
                    406: @INPROCEEDINGS{LeeShrivastava09,
                    407:         TITLE       = {A Compiler Optimization to Reduce Soft Errors in Register Files},
                    408:         AUTHOR      = {Jongeun Lee and Aviral Shrivastava},
                    409:         BOOKTITLE   = {ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems},
                    410:         EDITOR      = {Mahmut Kandemir},
                    411:         PUBLISHER   = {ACM},
                    412:         PAGES       = {??--??},
                    413:         ADDRESS     = {Dublin},
                    414:         MONTH       = {June},
                    415:         YEAR        = {2009},
                    416: }
                    417: 
                    418: @BOOK{MishraDutt08,
                    419:         TITLE       = {Processor Description Languages},
                    420:         AUTHOR      = {Prabhat Mishra and Nikil Dutt (Editor)},
                    421:         PUBLISHER   = {Morgan Kaufmann},
                    422:         YEAR        = {2008},
                    423: }
                    424: 
                    425: 
                    426: 
                    427: %Eigene Referenzen ab hier.
                    428: 
                    429: @InProceedings{SchrSchoKn09,
                    430:         TITLE       = "Adding Timing-Awareness to {AUTOSAR} Basic-Software - A Component Based Approach",
                    431:         AUTHOR      = "Dietmar Schreiner and Markus Schordan and Jens Knoop",
                    432:         BOOKTITLE   = "12th IEEE International Symposium on Object/component/service-oriented
                    433:                        Real-time distributed Computing (ISORC 2009)",
                    434:         PUBLISHER   = "IEEE",
                    435:         ADDRESS     = "Tokyo, Japan",
                    436:         YEAR        = "2009",
                    437:         MONTH       = "March",
                    438:         PAGES       = "288--292",
                    439: }
                    440: 
                    441: @inproceedings{Prantl:WLPE2008,
                    442:        Address = {Udine, Italy},
                    443:        Author = {Adrian Prantl and Jens Knoop and Markus Schordan and Markus Triska},
                    444:        Booktitle = {The 18th Workshop on Logic-based methods in Programming Environments (WLPE 2008)},
                    445:        Month = {December 12},
                    446:        Title = {Constraint solving for high-level WCET analysis},
                    447:        Year = {2008},
                    448:         URL = {http://costa.tuwien.ac.at/papers/wlpe08.pdf}
                    449: }
                    450: 
                    451: @InProceedings{prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,
                    452:   author =     "Adrian Prantl and Markus Schordan and Jens Knoop",
                    453:   title =      "TuBound - {A} Conceptually New Tool for Worst-Case
                    454:                 Execution Time Analysis",
                    455:   booktitle =  "8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET)
                    456:                 Analysis",
                    457:   year =       "2008",
                    458:   editor =     "Raimund Kirner",
                    459:   publisher =  "Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik,
                    460:                 Germany",
                    461:   address =    "Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    462:   URL =        "http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2008/1661",
                    463:   annote =     "Keywords: Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis,
                    464:                 Tool Chain, Flow Constraints, Source-To-Source",
                    465:   ISBN =       "978-3-939897-10-1",
                    466:   note =       "also published in print by Austrian Computer Society
                    467:                 (OCG) under ISBN 978-3-85403-237-3",
                    468: }
                    469: 
                    470: @InProceedings{kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657,
                    471:   author =     "Raimund Kirner and Albrecht Kadlec and Adrian Prantl
                    472:                 and Markus Schordan and Jens Knoop",
                    473:   title =      "Towards a Common {WCET} Annotation Language: Essential
                    474:                 Ingredients",
                    475:   booktitle =  "8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET)
                    476:                 Analysis",
                    477:   year =       "2008",
                    478:   editor =     "Raimund Kirner",
                    479:   publisher =  "Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik,
                    480:                 Germany",
                    481:   address =    "Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    482:   URL =        "http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2008/1657",
                    483:   annote =     "Keywords: Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis,
                    484:                 annotation languages, WCET annotation language
                    485:                 challenge",
                    486:   ISBN =       "978-3-939897-10-1",
                    487:   note =       "also published in print by Austrian Computer Society
                    488:                 (OCG) under ISBN 978-3-85403-237-3",
                    489: }
                    490: 
                    491: @InProceedings{kirner_et_al:DSP:2007:1197,
                    492:   author =     "Raimund Kirner and Jens Knoop and Adrian Prantl and
                    493:                 Markus Schordan and Ingomar Wenzel",
                    494:   title =      "{WCET} Analysis: The Annotation Language Challenge",
                    495:   booktitle =  "7th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET)
                    496:                 Analysis",
                    497:   year =       "2007",
                    498:   editor =     "Christine Rochange",
                    499:   publisher =  "Internationales Begegnungs- und Forschungszentrum
                    500:                 f{"u}r Informatik (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    501:   address =    "Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    502:   URL =        "http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2007/1197",
                    503:   annote =     "Keywords: Worst-case execution time analysis, WCET,
                    504:                 path description, annotation language challenge,
                    505:                 expressiveness, convenience",
                    506: }
                    507: 
                    508: 
                    509: @InProceedings{knoop:DSP:2008:1575,
                    510:   author =     {Jens Knoop},
                    511:   title =      {Data-Flow Analysis for Multi-Core Computing Systems: A Reminder to Reverse Data-Flow Analysis},
                    512:   booktitle =  {Scalable Program Analysis},
                    513:   year =       {2008},
                    514:   editor =     {Florian Martin and Hanne Riis Nielson and Claudio Riva and Markus Schordan},
                    515:   number =     {08161},
                    516:   series =     {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings},
                    517:   ISSN =       {1862-4405},
                    518:   publisher =  {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, Germany},
                    519:   address =    {Dagstuhl, Germany},
                    520:   URL =                {http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2008/1575},
                    521:   annote =     {Keywords: Multi-core computing systems, scalable program analysis, reverse data-flow analysis, demand-driven data-flow analysis}
                    522: }
                    523: 
                    524: @InProceedings{conf/cc/XueK06,
                    525:   title =      "A Fresh Look at {PRE} as a Maximum Flow Problem",
                    526:   author =     "Jingling Xue and Jens Knoop",
                    527:   bibdate =    "2006-04-05",
                    528:   bibsource =  "DBLP,
                    529:                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/cc/cc2006.html#XueK06",
                    530:   booktitle =  "CC",
                    531:   booktitle =  "Compiler Construction, 15th International Conference,
                    532:                 {CC} 2006, Held as Part of the Joint European
                    533:                 Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, {ETAPS}
                    534:                 2006, Vienna, Austria, March 30-31, 2006, Proceedings",
                    535:   publisher =  "Springer",
                    536:   year =       "2006",
                    537:   volume =     "3923",
                    538:   editor =     "Alan Mycroft and Andreas Zeller",
                    539:   ISBN =       "3-540-33050-X",
                    540:   pages =      "139--154",
                    541:   series =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
                    542:   URL =        "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11688839_13",
                    543: }
                    544: 
                    545: @InProceedings{scholz04,
                    546:   author =     "Bernhard Scholz and Nigel Horspool and Jens Knoop",
                    547:   title =      "Optimizing for space and time usage with speculative
                    548:                 partial redundancy elimination",
                    549:   booktitle =  "LCTES '04: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED
                    550:                 conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems",
                    551:   year =       "2004",
                    552:   ISBN =       "1-58113-806-7",
                    553:   pages =      "221--230",
                    554:   location =   "Washington, DC, USA",
                    555:   publisher =  "ACM Press",
                    556: }
                    557: 
                    558: @InProceedings{HiKr03,
                    559:         TITLE       = "{VLIW} Operation Refinement for Reducing Energy Consumption",
                    560:         AUTHOR      = "Ulrich Hirnschrott and Andreas Krall",
                    561:         BOOKTITLE   = "International Symposium on System-on Chip",
                    562:         PUBLISHER   = "IEEE",
                    563:         ADDRESS     = "Tampere, Finland",
                    564:         YEAR        = "2003",
                    565:         PAGES       = "131--134",
                    566: }
                    567: 
                    568: @Article{Krall+04micro,
                    569:   author =       {Andreas Krall and Ulrich Hirnschrott and Christian Panis and Ivan Pryanishnikov},
                    570:   title =        {x{DSP}core: {A} {C}ompiler-{B}ased {C}onfigureable {D}igital {S}ignal {P}rocessor},
                    571:   journal =      {IEEE Micro},
                    572:   year =         {2004},
                    573:   OPTkey =       {},
                    574:   volume =       {24},
                    575:   number =       {4},
                    576:   pages =        {67-78},
                    577:   month =        {July/August},
                    578:   OPTnote =      {},
                    579:   OPTannote =    {},
                    580: }
                    581: 
                    582: @INPROCEEDINGS{FarKrStBrand06,
                    583:         TITLE       = {Effective Compiler Generation by Architecture Description},
                    584:         AUTHOR      = {Stefan Farfeleder and Andreas Krall and Edwin Steiner and Florian Brandner},
                    585:         BOOKTITLE   = {ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems},
                    586:         EDITOR      = {Koen De Bosschere},
                    587:         PUBLISHER   = {ACM},
                    588:         PAGES       = {145--152},
                    589:         ADDRESS     = {Ottawa},
                    590:         MONTH       = {June},
                    591:         YEAR        = {2006},
                    592:         URL         = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1134650.1134671},
                    593: }
                    594: 
                    595: @ARTICLE{PrKrHo06,
                    596:         AUTHOR      = {Ivan Pryanishnikov and Andreas Krall and Nigel Horspool},
                    597:         TITLE       = {Compiler Optimizations for Processors with {SIMD} Instructions},
                    598:         JOURNAL     = {Software---Practice and Experience},
                    599:         PUBLISHER   = {Wiley},
                    600:         VOLUME      = {37},
                    601:         NUMBER      = {1},
                    602:         PAGES       = {93--113},
                    603:         YEAR        = {2007},
                    604:         URL         = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112783581/PDFSTART},
                    605: }
                    606: 
                    607: @ARTICLE{FaKrHo07,
                    608:         AUTHOR      = {Stefan Farfeleder and Andreas Krall and Nigel Horspool},
                    609:         TITLE       = {Ultra Fast Cycle-Accurate Compiled Emulation of Inorder Pipelined Architectures},
                    610:         JOURNAL     = {Journal of Systems Architecture},
                    611:         PUBLISHER   = {Elsevier},
                    612:         VOLUME      = {53},
                    613:         NUMBER      = {8},
                    614:         PAGES       = {501--510},
                    615:         YEAR        = {2007},
                    616: }
                    617: 
                    618: @INPROCEEDINGS{MeKr07,
                    619:         TITLE       = {Instruction Set Encoding Optimization for Code Size Reduction},
                    620:         AUTHOR      = {Michael Med and Andreas Krall},
                    621:         BOOKTITLE   = {International Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation},
                    622:         ADDRESS     = {Samos, Greece},
                    623:         PAGES       = {9--17},
                    624:         MONTH       = {July},
                    625:         YEAR        = {2007}
                    626: }
                    627: 
                    628: @INPROCEEDINGS{BrEbKr07,
                    629:         TITLE       = {Compiler Generation from Structural Architecture Descriptions},
                    630:         AUTHOR      = {Florian Brandner and Dietmar Ebner and Andreas Krall},
                    631:         BOOKTITLE   = {International Conference on Compilers, Architecture, and Synthesis for Embedded Systems},
                    632:         ADDRESS     = {Salzburg, Austria},
                    633:         PAGES       = {13--22},
                    634:         MONTH       = {September},
                    635:         YEAR        = {2007}
                    636: }
                    637: 
                    638: @INPROCEEDINGS{EbBrSchKrWiKa08,
                    639:         TITLE       = {Generalized Instruction Selection using {SSA}-Graphs},
                    640:         AUTHOR      = {Dietmar Ebner and Florian Brandner and Bernhard Scholz and Andreas Krall and Peter Wiedermann and Albrecht Kadlec},
                    641:         BOOKTITLE   = {ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems},
                    642:         EDITOR      = {John Regehr},
                    643:         PUBLISHER   = {ACM},
                    644:         PAGES       = {31--40},
                    645:         ADDRESS     = {Tucson},
                    646:         MONTH       = {June},
                    647:         YEAR        = {2008},
                    648: }
                    649: 
                    650: @INPROCEEDINGS{BrFeKrRi09,
                    651:         TITLE       = {Fast and Accurate Simulation using the LLVM Compiler Framework},
                    652:         AUTHOR      = {Florian Brandner and Andreas Fellnhofer and Andreas Krall and David Riegler},
                    653:         BOOKTITLE   = {Rapid Simulation and Performance Evaluation: Methods and Tools (RAPIDO'09)},
                    654:         EDITOR      = {Smail Niar, Rainer Leupers, Olivier Temam},
                    655:         PUBLISHER   = {HiPEAC},
                    656:         PAGES       = {1--6},
                    657:         ADDRESS     = {Paphos, Cyprus},
                    658:         MONTH       = {January},
                    659:         YEAR        = {2009},
                    660: }
                    661: \end{comment}
                    662: 
                    663: \bibliography{res}    % Input von res.bib, kommt dann spaeter dazu ...
                    664: 
                    665: \end{document}

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