Annotation of res/PP-compiler.tex, revision 1.10

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                     19: 
                     20: \title{\bf PP \emph{Compilation Techniques for Robust Embedded Systems}}
                     21: 
1.6       andi       22: \author{{\sc Andreas Krall and Jens Knoop}\\
                     23: \{andi,knoop\}@complang.tuwien.ac.at
1.1       andi       24: }
                     25: 
                     26: \bibliographystyle{unsrt}
                     27: 
                     28: \begin{document}
                     29: \maketitle
                     30: 
1.10    ! knoop      31: PP leader: \emph{Jens Knoop and Andreas Krall (beide E185.1)}
1.1       andi       32: 
1.10    ! knoop      33: Associated researchers: \emph{Anton Ertl (E185.1), Bernhard Gramlich (E185.2)}
1.1       andi       34: 
                     35: 
                     36: 
                     37: \subsubsection*{Motivation:} 
                     38: %\emph{Informal description of the purpose of the PP (3-5 lines)}
                     39: Every embedded system consists of software which is written in a high
                     40: level language, compiled to machine language and executed on a
1.10    ! knoop      41: processor. For robust embedded systems new verified analysis and
        !            42: compilation, simulation, and specification methods are necessary to
        !            43: support the programmer during application development and maintenance
        !            44: and to optimize for performance, power, space, concurrency and
        !            45: reliability during compilation.
        !            46: %for short, new programming and
        !            47: %compilation techniques for robust embedded systems development and
        !            48: %deployment.
1.1       andi       49: 
                     50: \subsubsection*{State of the art and related work:} 
                     51: %\emph{Briefly describe the scientific state of the art (20-30 lines)}
                     52: 
1.2       andi       53: %Compilation Techniques for Reliability
                     54: Because of the exponential increase of the number of transistors and
                     55: the continuing decrease of the feature sizes of current processors
1.10    ! knoop      56: \emph{soft errors} mainly caused by energetic particles are becoming an
1.2       andi       57: important design issue for robust embedded systems. Blome et
                     58: al.~\cite{Blome+06} observed that a majority of faults that affect the
                     59: architectural state of a processor come from the register file. Lee
1.10    ! knoop      60: and Shrivastava \cite{LeeShrivastava09a,LeeShrivastava09c} proposed
        !            61: different solutions to cope with this problem. The first assigns
        !            62: variables depending on their lifetime to either the ECC protected or
        !            63: the unprotected part of a register file to balance energy consumption
        !            64: and reliability \cite{LeeShrivastava09a}.  The second spills registers
        !            65: to ECC protected memory if the register contents are not used for a
        !            66: long period \cite{LeeShrivastava09c}.  There exist complete software
        !            67: solutions which use different forms of code duplications
        !            68: \cite{Oh+02a,Reis+05}, which do failure virtualization
        !            69: \cite{WapplerMueller08} or which use techniques like control flow
        !            70: checking \cite{Oh+02b}. A complete overview of processor description
        !            71: languages and generation of compilers and simulators from processor
        !            72: specifications gives the book of Mishra and Dutt \cite{MishraDutt08}.
1.4       andi       73: A good survey of current instruction set simulators gives our chapter
1.10    ! knoop      74: in the \emph{Handbook of Signal Processing systems} \cite{BrHoKr09}. A
        !            75: famous instruction set simulator with modelling of energy consumption
        !            76: is \emph{Wattch} \cite{BrooksTiwariMartonosi00}.
        !            77: 
        !            78: \paragraph{JK} 
        !            79: Methods for \emph{compiler verification} do exist
        !            80: \cite{Langmaack97a,Po-lncs124,MMO-lncs1283,Goos:99:verifix,Goos:00:ASM,1328444}. 
        !            81: Most notably are the pioneering approaches of the
        !            82: \emph{ProCoS} \cite{Langmaack96a} and the \emph{Verifix}
        !            83: \cite{Goerigk-et-al:CC96} projects, and more recently of 
        !            84: the \emph{CompCert} project \cite{CompCert,BDL-fm06,Le-popl06}. There
        !            85: is also a rich body of work on the related approaches of
        !            86: \emph{translation validation}
        !            87: \cite{PSS-tacas98,Ne-pldi00}, \emph{certifying compilation} 
        !            88: \cite{NL-pldi98,Colby-etal-pldi00,BlechPoetzsch07}, and
        !            89: \emph{proof-carrying code} \cite{Ne-popl97,AF-popl00,FNSG-tlfi07}. 
        !            90: However, an integratedly verified compiler,
        !            91: which is optimizing and ensures non-functional program properties such
        !            92: as on time and space ressources required by the compiled program is
        !            93: still missing.
        !            94: 
        !            95: \emph{Worst-case execution time analysis $($WCET$)$} for real-time systems,
        !            96: which are often safety-critical, is a vibrant field of research in
        !            97: academia and industry and of fast growing economical relevance,
        !            98: especially in the avionics and automotive industry. A survey on
        !            99: state-of-the-art tools and methods for WCET analysis has recently been
        !           100: given by Wilhelm et al.~\cite{Wilhelm:TECS2008}. The outcomes of the
        !           101: WCET Tool Challenges \cite{Gus:ISoLA2006,Holsti:WCET2008}, however,
        !           102: demonstrate that all these tools have their own strengths and
        !           103: limitations. In particular, they all rely to some extent on
        !           104: user-assistance and thus a \emph{trusted information basis} guiding
        !           105: the WCET analysis \cite{Prantl:WCET2009}.
        !           106: 
1.1       andi      107: 
1.10    ! knoop     108: \paragraph{AK}
1.9       andi      109: Three aspects of program and compiler correctness exist. The verifying
                    110: compiler proves properties of the translated program and is a grand challenge
1.10    ! knoop     111: for computing research \cite{Hoare03}. A certified compiler like Verifix is
1.9       andi      112: proven once to do semantically equivalent optimizations and translations
                    113: \cite{GlesnerGoosZimmeermann04,GoosZimmermann00}. Translation validation proves
                    114: at every compiler run that the translation is correct and was introduced by
                    115: Pnueli et al.\ \cite{Pnueli98a,Pnueli98b} and Necula \cite{Necula00}. Until now
                    116: some optimizations have been verified, recently lazy code motion
                    117: \cite{TristanLeroy09}, instruction scheduling \cite{TristanLeroy08}, or the whole
                    118: code generation phase \cite{BlechPoetzsch07}. Another research direction is the
                    119: construction of general frameworks for validation \cite{ZaksPnueli08} or
                    120: generalizations like parameterized equivalence checking \cite{Kundu+09}.
                    121:  
1.7       andi      122: 
1.1       andi      123: \subsubsection*{Previous achievements:} 
                    124: %\emph{Brief description of your own contributions to the related
                    125: %scientific state-of-the art (5-10 lines)}
1.10    ! knoop     126: Jens Knoop's research focuses on proven correct and optimal program
        !           127: analyses and optimizations \cite{Kn-lncs1428}. He is the co-inventor
        !           128: of the \emph{Lazy Code Motion}
        !           129: \cite{KRS-pldi92,KRS-retrolcm04,XueK06}, the code-size sensitive
        !           130: \emph{Sparse Code Motion} \cite{RKS-popl00}, and numerous other
        !           131: program analyses and optimizations including
        !           132: \emph{partial dead-code elimination}, \cite{KRS-pldi94}, \emph{partially redundant assignment elimination} \cite{KRS-pldi94}, and \emph{code-size sensitive 
        !           133: speculative code motion} \cite{scholz04}, many of which are now part of
        !           134: state-of-the-art compilers. Recent research focuses on compiler
        !           135: support for
        !           136: \emph{worst-case execution time analysis} for safety-critical
        !           137: real-time embedded systems
        !           138: \cite{Prantl:WCET2009,SchrSchoKn09,Prantl:WLPE2008,prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657,kirner_et_al:DSP:2007:1197}. He served on $50+$ 
        !           139: programme committees of international conferences including PLDI, CC,
        !           140: TACAS, Formal Methods, and Supercomputing. He was the General Chair of
        !           141: PLDI'02 and ETAPS'06, and is Programme Committee Co-Chair of PACT'10. He is the
        !           142: iniator and co-founder of the annual workshop series on
        !           143: \emph{Compiler Optimization meets Compiler Verification} (since 2002),
        !           144: co-organizer of 4 Dagstuhl seminars, most recently on \emph{Verifying
        !           145: Optimizing Compilation}, and a member of the European Network of
        !           146: Excellence HiPEAC.
        !           147: %, and the IFIP WG 2.4 \emph{Software Implementation Technology}.
1.1       andi      148: 
                    149: Andreas Krall does research in the area of architecture description
                    150: languages and the automatic generation of highly optimizing compilers,
                    151: efficient instruction set simulators and hardware from one single
                    152: specification of a processor \cite{BrFeKrRi09,BrEbKr07,FaKrHo07,
                    153: FarKrStBrand06,Krall+04micro}. An important focus is on optimization
                    154: techniques for embedded processors
                    155: \cite{EbBrSchKrWiKa08,MeKr07,PrKrHo06,HiKr03} as he lead the Christian
                    156: Doppler research laboratory {\em compilation techniques for embedded
                    157: processors} with partners from industry (Infineon, OnDemand
                    158: Microelectronics).
                    159: 
                    160: 
                    161: \subsubsection*{Goals (first 4 years):}
                    162: %\emph{Description of the research 
                    163: %topics to be addressed during the first 4 years. Make sure to explicitly 
                    164: %stress what the significant additions to the scientific knowledge are, 
                    165: %and why they are important. (30-40 lines)}
                    166: 
                    167: New modeling and representation techniques of non-functional program and system properties on the programming and intermediate language levels
                    168: Definitions and measures of non-functional program and system properties (performance, time, space/memory, power, concurrency).
                    169: Modeling and representation of these properties alongside with the programming languages semantics
                    170: Adapting and enhancing state-of-the-art compilation techniques towards non-functional property and platform awareness
                    171: New functional and non-functional property and platform-aware compilation techniques
                    172: Analyses for non-functional program and system properties
                    173: Functional and non-functional property and platform-aware code generation techniques
                    174: Enabling validation and verification throughout the compilation process
                    175: Techniques for reducing or eliminating trusted code, annotation, etc., bases
                    176: 
                    177: 
                    178: \subsubsection*{Work Plan (first 4 years):}
                    179: %\emph{Brief description of how 
                    180: %you intend to conduct the actual research during the first 4 years. Be sure 
                    181: %to also describe and (coarsely) quantify the resources (staff, cost of 
                    182: %special equipment) required for this work in a table. (20-30 lines)}
                    183: 
1.6       andi      184: Compilation techniques for robust embedded systems comprise different areas.
                    185: Therefore, the project is divided into three work packages: compilation and
                    186: simulation techniques for reliabiltiy, verified compilation and worst case
                    187: execution time analysis.
1.1       andi      188: 
1.5       andi      189: \paragraph*{WP1 - Compilation and Simulation Techniques for Reliability}
1.1       andi      190: 
1.6       andi      191: In previous work we have developed a processor description language
                    192: with a very concise semantics from where we automatically generate
                    193: optimized compilers \cite{BrEbKr07} and high efficient instruction set
                    194: simulators \cite{BrFeKrRi09}. This environment we use as testbed for
                    195: our compiler optimizations for embedded processors
                    196: \cite{EbBrSchKrWiKa08,PrKrHo06,MeKr07}. We will extend this
                    197: environment to do research on compilation and simulation techniques to
                    198: enhance the reliability of processor/memory systems by mixed
                    199: hardware/software and pure software techniques. 
1.1       andi      200: 
1.5       andi      201: \begin{itemize}
                    202: \item Specification method to specify an energy consumption model in
                    203:       a processor specification.
                    204: \item Specification method for redundancy and error correction in the
                    205:       processor specification
                    206: \item Specification method for fault injection and fault checking in
                    207:       the processor specification
                    208: \item Generation of optimized instruction set simulators from the
1.6       andi      209:       extended processor specification
                    210: \item Generation of optimizing compilers from the extended processor
                    211:       specification
1.5       andi      212: \item Research into new compiler optimizations to increase reliability by
                    213:       pure software solutions, mixed hardware/software solutions and
                    214:       balancing performance, code space, reliability and energy consumption
                    215: \item Research of correctness proofs and validation of the new optimizations
                    216: 
                    217: \end{itemize}
                    218: 
                    219: \paragraph*{WP2 - Verified Compilation}
                    220: 
1.8       andi      221: Suitable semantics are necessary which support efficient translation
                    222: validation or support easy verification of a compiler. We will research
                    223: into different semantics and into mappings between the semantics of our
                    224: processor description language \cite{BrEbKr07} and a compiler backend
                    225: semantics, intermediate representation semantics (compatible to LLVM) and
                    226: source language semantics. The main research will be on verification and
                    227: translation validation for all kinds of compiler optimizations.
                    228: 
                    229: \begin{itemize}
                    230: \item Evaluate different semantics regarding suitability for compiler
                    231:       verification and translation validation, eventually develop new
                    232:       semantics
                    233: \item Develop a translator for an automatic mapping from our processor
                    234:       description language into verification semantics
                    235: \item Develop a validation system from the intermediate representation
                    236:       (LLVM) to the processor semantics
                    237: \item Develop a validation system from the source language (C) to the
                    238:       intermediate representation (LLVM)
                    239: \item Research into verification and translation validation for different
                    240:       frontend and backend optimizations
                    241: \end{itemize}
1.5       andi      242: 
                    243: \paragraph*{WP3 - Worst Case Ececution Time Analysis}
1.1       andi      244: 
1.5       andi      245: WCET
1.2       andi      246: 
1.1       andi      247: 
                    248: \begin{tabular}{llll}
1.5       andi      249: \\
1.1       andi      250: \hline
1.2       andi      251: {\bf Pos} & {\bf Type} & {\bf Description}    & {\bf Duration} \\
                    252: NN1 & PhD & reliable compilation / simulation & 4 years \\
1.5       andi      253: NN2 & PhD & verified compilation              & 4 years \\
1.2       andi      254: NN3 & PhD & WCET                              & 4 years \\
1.1       andi      255: \hline
                    256: \end{tabular}
                    257: 
                    258: 
                    259: \subsubsection*{Goals (last 4 years):}
                    260: %\emph{Brief description of the 
                    261: %eesearch topics to be addressed during the last 4 years. Make sure to 
                    262: %explicitly stress what the significant additions to the scientific 
                    263: %knowledge are, and why they are important. (20-30 lines)}
                    264: 
                    265: New programming languages and compilers for RESs
                    266: Non-functional properties and requirements as first-class language and compiler citizens
                    267: New compilation techniques enabling a uniform and integrated approach
                    268: for ensuring functional and non-functional program and system requirements
                    269: Replacing trust by proof
                    270: Certifying compilation, proof-carrying code, translation validation
                    271: Verified compilers, verifying compilation for RESs
                    272: Making legacy applications fit to and available on RESs
                    273: Techniques for adjusting and decompiling legacy applications
                    274: 
                    275: \subsubsection*{Collaboration with other PPs:}
                    276: %\emph{List the PPs you are expecting to collaborate with, and describe briefly
                    277: %the topic and  nature of such a collaboration. (10-20 lines)}
                    278: 
                    279: \begin{itemize}
                    280: \item PP Composition of Non-functional Requirements [I.S.T.A./Henzinger]:
                    281:       Links to specification and modeling of timing properties, to execution
                    282:       models, hardware and software models.
                    283: \item PP Composition and Predictability in RES Architectures
                    284:       [E182/Puschner]: Links to hard- and software models for time
                    285:       predictable systems, verification of timing behaviour.
                    286: \item PP Formal Verification for Robustness [E184/Veith]: Links to software
1.10    ! knoop     287:       model-checking and testing of code (on source code and intermediate
1.1       andi      288:       code levels), support for program analysis and transformation.
                    289: \item PP Modeling \& Analysis of Robust Distributed Systems [E182/Schmid]:
                    290:       Links to functional and non-functional system requirements,
                    291:       distribution, concurrency.
                    292: \end{itemize}
                    293: 
                    294: \subsubsection*{External Collaborations:}
                    295: %\emph{List envisioned international  and national collaborations, and
                    296: %describe briefly the topic and nature  of such a collaboration. (5-10
                    297: %lines)}
1.10    ! knoop     298: \begin{itemize}
        !           299: \item Sabine Glesner, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany
        !           300: \item Aviral Shrivastava, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA
        !           301: \item Wolf Zimmermann, Martin-Luther Universit\"at Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany
        !           302: \end{itemize}
1.1       andi      303: 
                    304: \begin{comment}
                    305: %Bitte hier die Bibtex-Entries  einfuellen, z.B.,
                    306: 
                    307: 
                    308: ------------------------------------
                    309: 
                    310: @article{Hoare,
                    311:  author = {Tony Hoare},
                    312:  title = {The verifying compiler: A grand challenge for computing research},
                    313:  journal = {Journal of the ACM},
                    314:  volume = {50},
                    315:  number = {1},
                    316:  year = {2003},
                    317:  issn = {0004-5411},
                    318:  pages = {63--69},
                    319:  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/602382.602403},
                    320:  publisher = {ACM},
                    321:  address = {New York, NY, USA},
                    322:  }
                    323:  
                    324:  @article{1328444,
                    325:  author = {Jean-Baptiste Tristan and Xavier Leroy},
                    326:  title = {Formal verification of translation validators: a case study on instruction scheduling optimizations},
                    327:  journal = {SIGPLAN Not.},
                    328:  volume = {43},
                    329:  number = {1},
                    330:  year = {2008},
                    331:  issn = {0362-1340},
                    332:  pages = {17--27},
                    333:  doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328897.1328444},
                    334:  publisher = {ACM},
                    335:  address = {New York, NY, USA},
                    336:  }
                    337:  
                    338:  @article{1314860,
                    339:  author = {Jan Olaf Blech and Arnd Poetzsch-Heffter},
                    340:  title = {A Certifying Code Generation Phase},
                    341:  journal = {Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci.},
                    342:  volume = {190},
                    343:  number = {4},
                    344:  year = {2007},
                    345:  issn = {1571-0661},
                    346:  pages = {65--82},
                    347:  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.entcs.2007.09.008},
                    348:  publisher = {Elsevier Science Publishers B. V.},
                    349:  address = {Amsterdam, The Netherlands, The Netherlands},
                    350:  }
                    351:  
                    352: @INPROCEEDINGS{LeeShrivastava09,
                    353:         TITLE       = {A Compiler Optimization to Reduce Soft Errors in Register Files},
                    354:         AUTHOR      = {Jongeun Lee and Aviral Shrivastava},
                    355:         BOOKTITLE   = {ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems},
                    356:         EDITOR      = {Mahmut Kandemir},
                    357:         PUBLISHER   = {ACM},
                    358:         PAGES       = {??--??},
                    359:         ADDRESS     = {Dublin},
                    360:         MONTH       = {June},
                    361:         YEAR        = {2009},
                    362: }
                    363: 
                    364: @BOOK{MishraDutt08,
                    365:         TITLE       = {Processor Description Languages},
                    366:         AUTHOR      = {Prabhat Mishra and Nikil Dutt (Editor)},
                    367:         PUBLISHER   = {Morgan Kaufmann},
                    368:         YEAR        = {2008},
                    369: }
                    370: 
                    371: 
                    372: 
                    373: %Eigene Referenzen ab hier.
                    374: 
                    375: @InProceedings{SchrSchoKn09,
                    376:         TITLE       = "Adding Timing-Awareness to {AUTOSAR} Basic-Software - A Component Based Approach",
                    377:         AUTHOR      = "Dietmar Schreiner and Markus Schordan and Jens Knoop",
                    378:         BOOKTITLE   = "12th IEEE International Symposium on Object/component/service-oriented
                    379:                        Real-time distributed Computing (ISORC 2009)",
                    380:         PUBLISHER   = "IEEE",
                    381:         ADDRESS     = "Tokyo, Japan",
                    382:         YEAR        = "2009",
                    383:         MONTH       = "March",
                    384:         PAGES       = "288--292",
                    385: }
                    386: 
                    387: @inproceedings{Prantl:WLPE2008,
                    388:        Address = {Udine, Italy},
                    389:        Author = {Adrian Prantl and Jens Knoop and Markus Schordan and Markus Triska},
                    390:        Booktitle = {The 18th Workshop on Logic-based methods in Programming Environments (WLPE 2008)},
                    391:        Month = {December 12},
                    392:        Title = {Constraint solving for high-level WCET analysis},
                    393:        Year = {2008},
                    394:         URL = {http://costa.tuwien.ac.at/papers/wlpe08.pdf}
                    395: }
                    396: 
                    397: @InProceedings{prantl_et_al:DSP:2008:1661,
                    398:   author =     "Adrian Prantl and Markus Schordan and Jens Knoop",
                    399:   title =      "TuBound - {A} Conceptually New Tool for Worst-Case
                    400:                 Execution Time Analysis",
                    401:   booktitle =  "8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET)
                    402:                 Analysis",
                    403:   year =       "2008",
                    404:   editor =     "Raimund Kirner",
                    405:   publisher =  "Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik,
                    406:                 Germany",
                    407:   address =    "Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    408:   URL =        "http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2008/1661",
                    409:   annote =     "Keywords: Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis,
                    410:                 Tool Chain, Flow Constraints, Source-To-Source",
                    411:   ISBN =       "978-3-939897-10-1",
                    412:   note =       "also published in print by Austrian Computer Society
                    413:                 (OCG) under ISBN 978-3-85403-237-3",
                    414: }
                    415: 
                    416: @InProceedings{kirner_et_al:DSP:2008:1657,
                    417:   author =     "Raimund Kirner and Albrecht Kadlec and Adrian Prantl
                    418:                 and Markus Schordan and Jens Knoop",
                    419:   title =      "Towards a Common {WCET} Annotation Language: Essential
                    420:                 Ingredients",
                    421:   booktitle =  "8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET)
                    422:                 Analysis",
                    423:   year =       "2008",
                    424:   editor =     "Raimund Kirner",
                    425:   publisher =  "Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik,
                    426:                 Germany",
                    427:   address =    "Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    428:   URL =        "http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2008/1657",
                    429:   annote =     "Keywords: Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis,
                    430:                 annotation languages, WCET annotation language
                    431:                 challenge",
                    432:   ISBN =       "978-3-939897-10-1",
                    433:   note =       "also published in print by Austrian Computer Society
                    434:                 (OCG) under ISBN 978-3-85403-237-3",
                    435: }
                    436: 
                    437: @InProceedings{kirner_et_al:DSP:2007:1197,
                    438:   author =     "Raimund Kirner and Jens Knoop and Adrian Prantl and
                    439:                 Markus Schordan and Ingomar Wenzel",
                    440:   title =      "{WCET} Analysis: The Annotation Language Challenge",
                    441:   booktitle =  "7th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET)
                    442:                 Analysis",
                    443:   year =       "2007",
                    444:   editor =     "Christine Rochange",
                    445:   publisher =  "Internationales Begegnungs- und Forschungszentrum
                    446:                 f{"u}r Informatik (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    447:   address =    "Dagstuhl, Germany",
                    448:   URL =        "http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2007/1197",
                    449:   annote =     "Keywords: Worst-case execution time analysis, WCET,
                    450:                 path description, annotation language challenge,
                    451:                 expressiveness, convenience",
                    452: }
                    453: 
                    454: 
                    455: @InProceedings{knoop:DSP:2008:1575,
                    456:   author =     {Jens Knoop},
                    457:   title =      {Data-Flow Analysis for Multi-Core Computing Systems: A Reminder to Reverse Data-Flow Analysis},
                    458:   booktitle =  {Scalable Program Analysis},
                    459:   year =       {2008},
                    460:   editor =     {Florian Martin and Hanne Riis Nielson and Claudio Riva and Markus Schordan},
                    461:   number =     {08161},
                    462:   series =     {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings},
                    463:   ISSN =       {1862-4405},
                    464:   publisher =  {Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, Germany},
                    465:   address =    {Dagstuhl, Germany},
                    466:   URL =                {http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2008/1575},
                    467:   annote =     {Keywords: Multi-core computing systems, scalable program analysis, reverse data-flow analysis, demand-driven data-flow analysis}
                    468: }
                    469: 
                    470: @InProceedings{conf/cc/XueK06,
                    471:   title =      "A Fresh Look at {PRE} as a Maximum Flow Problem",
                    472:   author =     "Jingling Xue and Jens Knoop",
                    473:   bibdate =    "2006-04-05",
                    474:   bibsource =  "DBLP,
                    475:                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/cc/cc2006.html#XueK06",
                    476:   booktitle =  "CC",
                    477:   booktitle =  "Compiler Construction, 15th International Conference,
                    478:                 {CC} 2006, Held as Part of the Joint European
                    479:                 Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, {ETAPS}
                    480:                 2006, Vienna, Austria, March 30-31, 2006, Proceedings",
                    481:   publisher =  "Springer",
                    482:   year =       "2006",
                    483:   volume =     "3923",
                    484:   editor =     "Alan Mycroft and Andreas Zeller",
                    485:   ISBN =       "3-540-33050-X",
                    486:   pages =      "139--154",
                    487:   series =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
                    488:   URL =        "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11688839_13",
                    489: }
                    490: 
                    491: @InProceedings{scholz04,
                    492:   author =     "Bernhard Scholz and Nigel Horspool and Jens Knoop",
                    493:   title =      "Optimizing for space and time usage with speculative
                    494:                 partial redundancy elimination",
                    495:   booktitle =  "LCTES '04: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED
                    496:                 conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems",
                    497:   year =       "2004",
                    498:   ISBN =       "1-58113-806-7",
                    499:   pages =      "221--230",
                    500:   location =   "Washington, DC, USA",
                    501:   publisher =  "ACM Press",
                    502: }
                    503: 
                    504: @InProceedings{HiKr03,
                    505:         TITLE       = "{VLIW} Operation Refinement for Reducing Energy Consumption",
                    506:         AUTHOR      = "Ulrich Hirnschrott and Andreas Krall",
                    507:         BOOKTITLE   = "International Symposium on System-on Chip",
                    508:         PUBLISHER   = "IEEE",
                    509:         ADDRESS     = "Tampere, Finland",
                    510:         YEAR        = "2003",
                    511:         PAGES       = "131--134",
                    512: }
                    513: 
                    514: @Article{Krall+04micro,
                    515:   author =       {Andreas Krall and Ulrich Hirnschrott and Christian Panis and Ivan Pryanishnikov},
                    516:   title =        {x{DSP}core: {A} {C}ompiler-{B}ased {C}onfigureable {D}igital {S}ignal {P}rocessor},
                    517:   journal =      {IEEE Micro},
                    518:   year =         {2004},
                    519:   OPTkey =       {},
                    520:   volume =       {24},
                    521:   number =       {4},
                    522:   pages =        {67-78},
                    523:   month =        {July/August},
                    524:   OPTnote =      {},
                    525:   OPTannote =    {},
                    526: }
                    527: 
                    528: @INPROCEEDINGS{FarKrStBrand06,
                    529:         TITLE       = {Effective Compiler Generation by Architecture Description},
                    530:         AUTHOR      = {Stefan Farfeleder and Andreas Krall and Edwin Steiner and Florian Brandner},
                    531:         BOOKTITLE   = {ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems},
                    532:         EDITOR      = {Koen De Bosschere},
                    533:         PUBLISHER   = {ACM},
                    534:         PAGES       = {145--152},
                    535:         ADDRESS     = {Ottawa},
                    536:         MONTH       = {June},
                    537:         YEAR        = {2006},
                    538:         URL         = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1134650.1134671},
                    539: }
                    540: 
                    541: @ARTICLE{PrKrHo06,
                    542:         AUTHOR      = {Ivan Pryanishnikov and Andreas Krall and Nigel Horspool},
                    543:         TITLE       = {Compiler Optimizations for Processors with {SIMD} Instructions},
                    544:         JOURNAL     = {Software---Practice and Experience},
                    545:         PUBLISHER   = {Wiley},
                    546:         VOLUME      = {37},
                    547:         NUMBER      = {1},
                    548:         PAGES       = {93--113},
                    549:         YEAR        = {2007},
                    550:         URL         = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112783581/PDFSTART},
                    551: }
                    552: 
                    553: @ARTICLE{FaKrHo07,
                    554:         AUTHOR      = {Stefan Farfeleder and Andreas Krall and Nigel Horspool},
                    555:         TITLE       = {Ultra Fast Cycle-Accurate Compiled Emulation of Inorder Pipelined Architectures},
                    556:         JOURNAL     = {Journal of Systems Architecture},
                    557:         PUBLISHER   = {Elsevier},
                    558:         VOLUME      = {53},
                    559:         NUMBER      = {8},
                    560:         PAGES       = {501--510},
                    561:         YEAR        = {2007},
                    562: }
                    563: 
                    564: @INPROCEEDINGS{MeKr07,
                    565:         TITLE       = {Instruction Set Encoding Optimization for Code Size Reduction},
                    566:         AUTHOR      = {Michael Med and Andreas Krall},
                    567:         BOOKTITLE   = {International Conference on Embedded Computer Systems: Architectures, Modeling, and Simulation},
                    568:         ADDRESS     = {Samos, Greece},
                    569:         PAGES       = {9--17},
                    570:         MONTH       = {July},
                    571:         YEAR        = {2007}
                    572: }
                    573: 
                    574: @INPROCEEDINGS{BrEbKr07,
                    575:         TITLE       = {Compiler Generation from Structural Architecture Descriptions},
                    576:         AUTHOR      = {Florian Brandner and Dietmar Ebner and Andreas Krall},
                    577:         BOOKTITLE   = {International Conference on Compilers, Architecture, and Synthesis for Embedded Systems},
                    578:         ADDRESS     = {Salzburg, Austria},
                    579:         PAGES       = {13--22},
                    580:         MONTH       = {September},
                    581:         YEAR        = {2007}
                    582: }
                    583: 
                    584: @INPROCEEDINGS{EbBrSchKrWiKa08,
                    585:         TITLE       = {Generalized Instruction Selection using {SSA}-Graphs},
                    586:         AUTHOR      = {Dietmar Ebner and Florian Brandner and Bernhard Scholz and Andreas Krall and Peter Wiedermann and Albrecht Kadlec},
                    587:         BOOKTITLE   = {ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems},
                    588:         EDITOR      = {John Regehr},
                    589:         PUBLISHER   = {ACM},
                    590:         PAGES       = {31--40},
                    591:         ADDRESS     = {Tucson},
                    592:         MONTH       = {June},
                    593:         YEAR        = {2008},
                    594: }
                    595: 
                    596: @INPROCEEDINGS{BrFeKrRi09,
                    597:         TITLE       = {Fast and Accurate Simulation using the LLVM Compiler Framework},
                    598:         AUTHOR      = {Florian Brandner and Andreas Fellnhofer and Andreas Krall and David Riegler},
                    599:         BOOKTITLE   = {Rapid Simulation and Performance Evaluation: Methods and Tools (RAPIDO'09)},
                    600:         EDITOR      = {Smail Niar, Rainer Leupers, Olivier Temam},
                    601:         PUBLISHER   = {HiPEAC},
                    602:         PAGES       = {1--6},
                    603:         ADDRESS     = {Paphos, Cyprus},
                    604:         MONTH       = {January},
                    605:         YEAR        = {2009},
                    606: }
                    607: \end{comment}
                    608: 
                    609: \bibliography{res}    % Input von res.bib, kommt dann spaeter dazu ...
                    610: 
                    611: \end{document}

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