1: You need gcc version 2.0 or later to compile gforth.
3: First, type
7: (see Section Configuration Options below for details).
9: After configuration, type
13: Now you can check whether your shiny new Forth system works. Say
15: make test
17: You can run some benchmarks with
19: make bench
21: and compare them with the results in Benchres and in the manual.
23: If everything is all right, you may want to install gforth. Type
25: make install
27: You have to make an entry in the info directory file manually.
29: For paper documentation, print gforth.ps (a Postscript file (300dpi
30: fonts, i.e., it works, but does not produce best quality on better
31: printers)), or say
33: make gforth.dvi
35: and print the resulting file gforth.dvi. You can also get the
36: documentation in HTML format by typing
38: make html
40: If you prefer plain ASCII documentation, just concatenate the files
41: gforth.info-* ('cat gforth.info-*' under Unix).
44: Configuration Options
46: If you use GNU make, you can build in a directory different from the
47: source directory by changing to the build directory and invoking
48: configure thus:
52: where $srcdir is the source directory. (Note that we tested this only
53: for installation; i.e., if you want to hack the Gforth sources, you
54: should probably build in the source directory).
56: configure has the following useful parameters:
57: --prefix=PREFIX install architecture-independent files in PREFIX
58: [default: /usr/local]
59: --exec-prefix=PREFIX install architecture-dependent files in PREFIX
60: [default: same as prefix]
61: --enable-force-reg Use explicit register declarations if they appear in
62: the machine.h file. This can cause a good speedup,
63: but also incorrect code with some gcc versions on
64: some processors (default disabled).
65: --enable-direct-threaded Force direct threading. This may not work on
66: some machines and may cause slowdown on others.
67: (default processor-dependent)
68: --enable-indirect-threaded Force indirect threading. This can cause a
69: slowdown on some machines.
70: (default processor-dependent)
71: --with-debug specifies option -g to compile with debug info (default)
72: --without-debug omits the -g switch and creates smaller images on
73: machines where strip has problems with gcc style
74: debugging informations.
75: --help: tells you about other parameters.
77: The file Benchres shows which combination of the -enable options we
78: tried gave the best results for various machines.
80: If you don't like the defaults for the installation directories, you
81: should override them already during configure. E.g., if you want to
82: install in the /gnu hierarchy instead of in the default /usr/local
83: hierarchy, say
85: ./configure --prefix=/gnu
87: Moreover, if your GCC is not called gcc (but, e.g., gcc-2.7.1), you
88: should say so during configuration. E.g.:
90: env CC=gcc-2.7.1 ./configure
92: You can also pass additional options to gcc in this way, e.g., if you
93: want to generate an a.out executable under Linux with gcc-2.7.0:
95: env "CC=gcc -b i486-linuxaout -V 2.7.0" ./configure
97: You can change the sizes of the various areas used in the default
98: image `gforth.fi' by passing the appropriate Gforth command line
99: options in the FORTHSIZES environment variable:
101: env "FORTHSIZES=--dictionary-size=256k --data-stack-size=16k --fp-stack-size=15872b --return-stack-size=15k --locals-stack-size=14848b" ./configure
103: The line above reaffirms the default sizes. Note that the locals
104: stack area is also used as input buffer stack.
106: If C's "long long" do not work properly on your machine (i.e., if the
107: tests involving double-cell numbers fail), you can build Gforth such
108: that it does not use "long long":
110: env ac_cv_sizeof_long_long=0 ./configure
115: A few tests made by the configure script do not work in a
116: cross-compilation situation. You have to provide the results of these
117: tests by hand. E.g., if you compile for a 386 architecture processor:
119: env ac_cv_sizeof_char_p=4 ac_cv_sizeof_short=2 ac_cv_sizeof_int=4 ac_cv_sizeof_long=4 ac_cv_sizeof_long_long=8 ac_cv_c_bigendian=no ./configure
121: The ac_cv_sizeof_... variables give the sizes of various C types;
122: ac_cv_sizeof_char_p is the same as "sizeof(char*)" in C code. The
123: ac_cv_c_bigendian variable gives the byte order.
126: Preloading installation-specific code
128: If you want to have some installation-specific files loaded when
129: Gforth starts (e.g., an assembler for your processor), put commands
130: for loading them into /usr/local/share/gforth/site-forth/site-init.fs
131: (if the commands work for all architectures) or
132: /usr/local/lib/gforth/site-forth/site-init.fs (for
133: architecture-specific commands);
134: /usr/local/lib/gforth/site-forth/site-init.fs takes precedence if both
135: files are present (unless you change the search path). The file names
136: given above are the defaults; if you have changed the prefix, you have
137: to replace "/usr/local" in these names with your prefix.
139: By default, the installation procedure creates an empty
140: /usr/local/share/gforth/site-forth/site-init.fs if there is no such
143: If you change the site-init.fs file, you should run "make install"
144: again for the changes to take effect (Actually, the part of "make
145: install" starting with "rm gforth.fi" is sufficient).
148: Multiple Versions and Deinstallation
150: Several versions of Gforth can be installed and used at the same
151: time. Version `foo' can be invoked with `gforth-foo'. We recommend to
152: keep the old version for some time after a new one has been installed.
154: You can deinstall this version of Gforth with 'make uninstall' and
155: version foo with 'make uninstall VERSION=foo'. 'make uninstall' also
156: tells you how to uninstall Gforth completely.
159: A Possible Problem
161: You need to read this only if you see a message like
164: The Gforth installer should look into the INSTALL file
166: 1) "gforth: Cannot load nonrelocatable image (compiled for address $1234) at address $5678
167: The Gforth installer should look into the INSTALL file"
169: Gforth supports both relocatable and fixed-address images. If you load
170: normal Forth code and save the image, you get a fixed-address
171: image. Producing a relocatable image is more difficult.
173: Therefore, Gforth has only a relocatable image of the kernel
174: (kernel.fi), which is powerful enough to load the rest of
175: Gforth. However, loading the rest takes a noticable amount of time. To
176: avoid this delay (which would occur on every startup), the
177: installation procedure produces an image fixed at an address
178: determined at the Gforth run that produced the image. This
179: fixed-address image is loaded by default. On most OSs this works,
180: because the first chunk of memory is always allocated at the same
181: address. If the address changes, you get the message above.
183: An image address change can be caused by a change of the gforth
184: executable, or by a change (upgrade) of the OS; in these cases you
185: just have to rebuild and reinstall the fixed address image with
187: rm gforth.fi; make gforth.fi; make install
189: If you get such a message with a different address in place of the
190: $5678 each time you try to start gforth, you cannot use fixed-address
191: images on your OS. In this case, send us a message so that we start
192: searching for a comfortable solution to this problem. In the
193: meantime, start gforth with
195: gforth -i kernel.fi startup.fs
197: If the addresses changes by only a small amount (e.g. by one or two
198: pages), you can fix it by defining FUZZ (in config.h) to a number at
199: least two times the changes you observe (0x4000 is a good idea, this
200: is four 4k pages) and recompile. We do this for the DJGPP port for
201: DOS, because the start address there changes by one or two pages, and
202: it helps us to keep the DOS people happy without investing too much
203: work in a braindead environment.
206: 2) "%s: Checksum of image ($13579b) does not match the executable ($2468a)
207: The Gforth installer should look into the INSTALL file"
209: A fixed-address image is not only fixed with respect to its base
210: address, but also with respect to certain addresses in the gforth
211: executable and the threading method. These things are encoded in a
214: If the checksum of the executable and the checksum of the image are
215: not equal, you get the message above. This can be caused, e.g., by
216: trying to run an image produced for a direct threading system on an
217: indirect threaded system.
219: Chances are that you unintentionally tried to execute an image from
220: the wrong directory. As a remedy, you can specify Gforth's search
221: path with the "-p" command line option and with the GFORTHPATH
222: environment variable.
224: On the other hand, if you need to solve the problem by creating a new
225: fixed-address image, you can use the steps described above.