This is not a proposal, these are just some thoughts on the topic.
While ANS Forth is designed for dealing with fixed-size characters
larger than 1 au, there are many programs that have an environmental
dependency on 1 CHARS being 1 au (and that's an environmental
dependency that is hard to get rid of). One workaround would be to
make the au larger, but that probably leads to problems when
interfacing with the rest of the world. An additional issue is that
full-blown fixed-size Unicode characters take 4 bytes, resulting in 4
times as much space consumption (compared to 8-bit or UTF-8 encoding)
for plain-ASCII texts.
So the approach proposed here is to use the UTF-8 encoding of Unicode.
1 CHARS would continue to be 1 au on byte-addressed machines. In
addition to the type c (character(-part)), we introduce a type xc
(extended character). On the stack an xc takes a cell. In memory an
xc takes one or more cs. Note that on a system with an 8bit encoding
(e.g., Gforth when LANG does not match *UTF-8), an xc is the same as a
c (i.e., in general the xc words do not deal with UTF-8, but with the
(extended) characters in the encoding supported by the system).
How do existing words relate to this? Do they now deal with cs or
- The counts in any existing words dealing with strings refer to cs,
not to xcs. Thus all programs that use strings, but not individual
characters, automatically work for systems with xcs (not quite:
incomplete xcs must usually be avoided, so we will have to take a
closer look at the various words and see how they are affected when
dealing with full buffers).
- Any words that deal with character addresses work in units of cs,
- Words that deal with characters, but not with addresses, e.g., EMIT
and KEY (any others?): One might consider letting them process xcs, so
that definitions using them would automatically also be usable for xcs
without needing to be rewritten; however, most words using EMIT or KEY
probably also do character-address arithmetic, so they have to be
adapted to work with xcs anyway. My gut feeling is that less programs
need to be adapted, and in less problematic ways if we let EMIT and
KEY work on cs, and introduce new words XEMIT and XKEY that deal with
XEMIT ( xc -- )
XKEY ( -- xc )
- We need new words for doing xc address arithmetic and xc accesses:
XCHAR+ ( xc-addr1 -- xc-addr2 )
XCHAR- ( xc-addr1 -- xc-addr2 )
+X/STRING ( xc-addr1 u1 -- xc-addr2 u2 )
-X/STRING ( xc-addr1 u1 -- xc-addr2 u2 )
XC@ ( xc-addr -- xc )
XC!+? ( xc xc-addr1 u1 -- xc-addr2 u2 f ) \ f if operation succeeded
XC@+ ( xc-addr1 -- xc-addr2 xc )
XC-SIZE ( xc -- u ) \ size in cs
Note that the u2 here always refer to the number of cs, not xcs.
Probably not all of these words are necessary, but we might want to
implement all of them at first, in order to find out how useful they
are. Are there any that I missed?
- We probably need some additional words, e.g., for getting the
on-screen width of an xc, or for character classification and
case-changes, but I'll propose them later (after rereading the UTF-8
Applicability of the concept
This xc concept might be implemented on one system as referring to the
UTF-8 encoding of characters, on another system as referring to the
ordinary 8-bit encoding, on yet another system as referring to a
fixed-size 32-bit encoding; other encodings may be possible (depending
on the encoding; is going backwards through memory implementable for
all variable-width encodings in common use?), but if they don't fit,
too bad for them. Programs using xcs would work correctly on all
these systems. Some systems might be configurable for different
encodings (e.g., Gforth is configurable between 8bit and UTF-8
Note that switching the encoding of xcs at run-time is a bad idea.
Instead of providing a way to switch between encodings, provide access
words for these encodings, and let the programmers use those if they
ANS Forth compatibility of a system with UTF-8 xcs
The rules above ensure that most programs written for ANS Forth will
work well even when processing UTF-8 data. In any case, such a system
is fully ANS Forth compliant, because, even in those cases where there
is a difference in behaviour for multi-byte UTF-8 characters, the
program will work correctly for the data supported by ANS Forth: plain
ASCII, which is always encoded as one byte in UTF-8.
Testing a program written for using xcs is hard, if you only have
systems with 8bit or UTF-8 encodings. Bugs will often be hard to
notice on such systems, since you will not notice problems resulting
from using xcs where cs are expected or vice versa with ASCII
characters (or, for the 8bit-system, all characters). So, for testing
such programs, it may be a good idea to have a system that has some
other encoding available, e.g., UCS4 or UTF-16.
What do we do with files or network I/O that are encoded differently
than our internal encoding (very frequent during the transition
- The best approach is probably to translate from the outside encoding
to our internal encoding on (e.g., in READ-LINE or READ-FILE), and
translate back on output (e.g., WRITE-FILE). One would have to
specify the file's encoding somehow, possibly via the fam parameter of
OPEN-FILE (or maybe through the extension; Windows apparently also has
some special prefix at the start of files). The main problem with
this approach is that FILE-POSITION and friends would not work as they
should (arithmetic on the positions would not work correctly).
- An alternative approach is to read the files in the original format,
and then access the data using encoding-specific words. For the
newline issue (LF vs. CRLF vs. CR), Gforth eventually settled on that
approach, but for character encodings this is probably not a good idea
(and even for the newlines we had some difficulties).