File:  [gforth] / gforth / prim
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Sun May 4 08:28:28 2003 UTC (16 years, 3 months ago) by anton
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minor changes

    1: \ Gforth primitives
    2: 
    3: \ Copyright (C) 1995,1996,1997,1998,2000,2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    4: 
    5: \ This file is part of Gforth.
    6: 
    7: \ Gforth is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
    8: \ modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
    9: \ as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
   10: \ of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
   11: 
   12: \ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   13: \ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   14: \ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
   15: \ GNU General Public License for more details.
   16: 
   17: \ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
   18: \ along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
   19: \ Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
   20: 
   21: 
   22: \ WARNING: This file is processed by m4. Make sure your identifiers
   23: \ don't collide with m4's (e.g. by undefining them).
   24: \ 
   25: \ 
   26: \ 
   27: \ This file contains primitive specifications in the following format:
   28: \ 
   29: \ forth name	( stack effect )	category	[pronunciation]
   30: \ [""glossary entry""]
   31: \ C code
   32: \ [:
   33: \ Forth code]
   34: \ 
   35: \ Note: Fields in brackets are optional.  Word specifications have to
   36: \ be separated by at least one empty line
   37: \
   38: \ Both pronounciation and stack items (in the stack effect) must
   39: \ conform to the C identifier syntax or the C compiler will complain.
   40: \ If you don't have a pronounciation field, the Forth name is used,
   41: \ and has to conform to the C identifier syntax.
   42: \ 
   43: \ These specifications are automatically translated into C-code for the
   44: \ interpreter and into some other files. I hope that your C compiler has
   45: \ decent optimization, otherwise the automatically generated code will
   46: \ be somewhat slow. The Forth version of the code is included for manual
   47: \ compilers, so they will need to compile only the important words.
   48: \ 
   49: \ Note that stack pointer adjustment is performed according to stack
   50: \ effect by automatically generated code and NEXT is automatically
   51: \ appended to the C code. Also, you can use the names in the stack
   52: \ effect in the C code. Stack access is automatic. One exception: if
   53: \ your code does not fall through, the results are not stored into the
   54: \ stack. Use different names on both sides of the '--', if you change a
   55: \ value (some stores to the stack are optimized away).
   56: \
   57: \ For superinstructions the syntax is:
   58: \
   59: \ forth-name [/ c-name] = forth-name forth-name ...
   60: \
   61: \ 
   62: \ The stack variables have the following types:
   63: \ 
   64: \ name matches	type
   65: \ f.*		Bool
   66: \ c.*		Char
   67: \ [nw].*	Cell
   68: \ u.*		UCell
   69: \ d.*		DCell
   70: \ ud.*		UDCell
   71: \ r.*		Float
   72: \ a_.*		Cell *
   73: \ c_.*		Char *
   74: \ f_.*		Float *
   75: \ df_.*		DFloat *
   76: \ sf_.*		SFloat *
   77: \ xt.*		XT
   78: \ f83name.*	F83Name *
   79: 
   80: \E stack data-stack   sp Cell
   81: \E stack fp-stack     fp Float
   82: \E stack return-stack rp Cell
   83: \E
   84: \E get-current prefixes set-current
   85: \E 
   86: \E s" Bool"		single data-stack type-prefix f
   87: \E s" Char"		single data-stack type-prefix c
   88: \E s" Cell"		single data-stack type-prefix n
   89: \E s" Cell"		single data-stack type-prefix w
   90: \E s" UCell"		single data-stack type-prefix u
   91: \E s" DCell"		double data-stack type-prefix d
   92: \E s" UDCell"		double data-stack type-prefix ud
   93: \E s" Float"		single fp-stack   type-prefix r
   94: \E s" Cell *"		single data-stack type-prefix a_
   95: \E s" Char *"		single data-stack type-prefix c_
   96: \E s" Float *"		single data-stack type-prefix f_
   97: \E s" DFloat *"		single data-stack type-prefix df_
   98: \E s" SFloat *"		single data-stack type-prefix sf_
   99: \E s" Xt"		single data-stack type-prefix xt
  100: \E s" struct F83Name *"	single data-stack type-prefix f83name
  101: \E s" struct Longname *" single data-stack type-prefix longname
  102: \E 
  103: \E return-stack stack-prefix R:
  104: \E inst-stream  stack-prefix #
  105: \E 
  106: \E set-current
  107: \E store-optimization on
  108: \E ' noop tail-nextp2 ! \ now INST_TAIL just stores, but does not jump
  109: 
  110: \ 
  111: \ 
  112: \ 
  113: \ In addition the following names can be used:
  114: \ ip	the instruction pointer
  115: \ sp	the data stack pointer
  116: \ rp	the parameter stack pointer
  117: \ lp	the locals stack pointer
  118: \ NEXT	executes NEXT
  119: \ cfa	
  120: \ NEXT1	executes NEXT1
  121: \ FLAG(x)	makes a Forth flag from a C flag
  122: \ 
  123: \ 
  124: \ 
  125: \ Percentages in comments are from Koopmans book: average/maximum use
  126: \ (taken from four, not very representative benchmarks)
  127: \ 
  128: \ 
  129: \ 
  130: \ To do:
  131: \ 
  132: \ throw execute, cfa and NEXT1 out?
  133: \ macroize *ip, ip++, *ip++ (pipelining)?
  134: 
  135: \ these m4 macros would collide with identifiers
  136: undefine(`index')
  137: undefine(`shift')
  138: undefine(`symbols')
  139: 
  140: \g control
  141: 
  142: noop	( -- )		gforth
  143: :
  144:  ;
  145: 
  146: call	( #a_callee -- R:a_retaddr )	new
  147: ""Call callee (a variant of docol with inline argument).""
  148: #ifdef NO_IP
  149: INST_TAIL;
  150: JUMP(a_callee);
  151: #else
  152: #ifdef DEBUG
  153:     {
  154:       CFA_TO_NAME((((Cell *)a_callee)-2));
  155:       fprintf(stderr,"%08lx: call %08lx %.*s\n",(Cell)ip,(Cell)a_callee,
  156: 	      len,name);
  157:     }
  158: #endif
  159: a_retaddr = (Cell *)IP;
  160: SET_IP((Xt *)a_callee);
  161: #endif
  162: 
  163: execute	( xt -- )		core
  164: ""Perform the semantics represented by the execution token, @i{xt}.""
  165: #ifndef NO_IP
  166: ip=IP;
  167: #endif
  168: IF_spTOS(spTOS = sp[0]);
  169: SUPER_END;
  170: EXEC(xt);
  171: 
  172: perform	( a_addr -- )	gforth
  173: ""@code{@@ execute}.""
  174: /* and pfe */
  175: #ifndef NO_IP
  176: ip=IP;
  177: #endif
  178: IF_spTOS(spTOS = sp[0]);
  179: SUPER_END;
  180: EXEC(*(Xt *)a_addr);
  181: :
  182:  @ execute ;
  183: 
  184: ;s	( R:w -- )		gforth	semis
  185: ""The primitive compiled by @code{EXIT}.""
  186: #ifdef NO_IP
  187: INST_TAIL;
  188: goto *(void *)w;
  189: #else
  190: SET_IP((Xt *)w);
  191: #endif
  192: 
  193: unloop	( R:w1 R:w2 -- )	core
  194: /* !! alias for 2rdrop */
  195: :
  196:  r> rdrop rdrop >r ;
  197: 
  198: lit-perform	( #a_addr -- )	new	lit_perform
  199: #ifndef NO_IP
  200: ip=IP;
  201: #endif
  202: SUPER_END;
  203: EXEC(*(Xt *)a_addr);
  204: 
  205: does-exec ( #a_cfa -- R:nest a_pfa )	new	does_exec
  206: #ifdef NO_IP
  207: /* compiled to LIT CALL by compile_prim */
  208: assert(0);
  209: #else
  210: a_pfa = PFA(a_cfa);
  211: nest = (Cell)IP;
  212: IF_spTOS(spTOS = sp[0]);
  213: #ifdef DEBUG
  214:     {
  215:       CFA_TO_NAME(a_cfa);
  216:       fprintf(stderr,"%08lx: does %08lx %.*s\n",
  217: 	      (Cell)ip,(Cell)a_cfa,len,name);
  218:     }
  219: #endif
  220: SET_IP(DOES_CODE1(a_cfa));
  221: #endif
  222: 
  223: \+glocals
  224: 
  225: branch-lp+!# ( #a_target #nlocals -- )	gforth	branch_lp_plus_store_number
  226: /* this will probably not be used */
  227: lp += nlocals;
  228: #ifdef NO_IP
  229: INST_TAIL;
  230: JUMP(a_target);
  231: #else
  232: SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  233: #endif
  234: 
  235: \+
  236: 
  237: branch	( #a_target -- )	gforth
  238: #ifdef NO_IP
  239: INST_TAIL;
  240: JUMP(a_target);
  241: #else
  242: SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  243: #endif
  244: :
  245:  r> @ >r ;
  246: 
  247: \ condbranch(forthname,stackeffect,restline,code1,code2,forthcode)
  248: \ this is non-syntactical: code must open a brace that is closed by the macro
  249: define(condbranch,
  250: $1 ( `#'a_target $2 ) $3
  251: $4	#ifdef NO_IP
  252: INST_TAIL;
  253: #endif
  254: $5	#ifdef NO_IP
  255: JUMP(a_target);
  256: #else
  257: SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  258: INST_TAIL; NEXT_P2;
  259: #endif
  260: }
  261: SUPER_CONTINUE;
  262: $6
  263: 
  264: \+glocals
  265: 
  266: $1-lp+!`#' ( `#'a_target `#'nlocals $2 ) $3_lp_plus_store_number
  267: $4	#ifdef NO_IP
  268: INST_TAIL;
  269: #endif
  270: $5	lp += nlocals;
  271: #ifdef NO_IP
  272: JUMP(a_target);
  273: #else
  274: SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  275: INST_TAIL; NEXT_P2;
  276: #endif
  277: }
  278: SUPER_CONTINUE;
  279: 
  280: \+
  281: )
  282: 
  283: condbranch(?branch,f --,f83	question_branch,
  284: ,if (f==0) {
  285: ,:
  286:  0= dup 0=          \ !f f
  287:  r> tuck cell+      \ !f branchoffset f IP+
  288:  and -rot @ and or  \ f&IP+|!f&branch
  289:  >r ;)
  290: 
  291: \ we don't need an lp_plus_store version of the ?dup-stuff, because it
  292: \ is only used in if's (yet)
  293: 
  294: \+xconds
  295: 
  296: ?dup-?branch	( #a_target f -- f )	new	question_dupe_question_branch
  297: ""The run-time procedure compiled by @code{?DUP-IF}.""
  298: if (f==0) {
  299:   sp++;
  300:   IF_spTOS(spTOS = sp[0]);
  301: #ifdef NO_IP
  302: INST_TAIL;
  303: JUMP(a_target);
  304: #else
  305: SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  306:   INST_TAIL; NEXT_P2;
  307: #endif
  308: }
  309: SUPER_CONTINUE;
  310: 
  311: ?dup-0=-?branch ( #a_target f -- ) new	question_dupe_zero_equals_question_branch
  312: ""The run-time procedure compiled by @code{?DUP-0=-IF}.""
  313: /* the approach taken here of declaring the word as having the stack
  314: effect ( f -- ) and correcting for it in the branch-taken case costs a
  315: few cycles in that case, but is easy to convert to a CONDBRANCH
  316: invocation */
  317: if (f!=0) {
  318:   sp--;
  319: #ifdef NO_IP
  320:   JUMP(a_target);
  321: #else
  322:   SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  323:   NEXT;
  324: #endif
  325: }
  326: SUPER_CONTINUE;
  327: 
  328: \+
  329: \fhas? skiploopprims 0= [IF]
  330: 
  331: condbranch((next),R:n1 -- R:n2,cmFORTH	paren_next,
  332: n2=n1-1;
  333: ,if (n1) {
  334: ,:
  335:  r> r> dup 1- >r
  336:  IF @ >r ELSE cell+ >r THEN ;)
  337: 
  338: condbranch((loop),R:nlimit R:n1 -- R:nlimit R:n2,gforth	paren_loop,
  339: n2=n1+1;
  340: ,if (n2 != nlimit) {
  341: ,:
  342:  r> r> 1+ r> 2dup =
  343:  IF >r 1- >r cell+ >r
  344:  ELSE >r >r @ >r THEN ;)
  345: 
  346: condbranch((+loop),n R:nlimit R:n1 -- R:nlimit R:n2,gforth paren_plus_loop,
  347: /* !! check this thoroughly */
  348: /* sign bit manipulation and test: (x^y)<0 is equivalent to (x<0) != (y<0) */
  349: /* dependent upon two's complement arithmetic */
  350: Cell olddiff = n1-nlimit;
  351: n2=n1+n;	
  352: ,if ((olddiff^(olddiff+n))>=0   /* the limit is not crossed */
  353:     || (olddiff^n)>=0          /* it is a wrap-around effect */) {
  354: ,:
  355:  r> swap
  356:  r> r> 2dup - >r
  357:  2 pick r@ + r@ xor 0< 0=
  358:  3 pick r> xor 0< 0= or
  359:  IF    >r + >r @ >r
  360:  ELSE  >r >r drop cell+ >r THEN ;)
  361: 
  362: \+xconds
  363: 
  364: condbranch((-loop),u R:nlimit R:n1 -- R:nlimit R:n2,gforth paren_minus_loop,
  365: UCell olddiff = n1-nlimit;
  366: n2=n1-u;
  367: ,if (olddiff>u) {
  368: ,)
  369: 
  370: condbranch((s+loop),n R:nlimit R:n1 -- R:nlimit R:n2,gforth	paren_symmetric_plus_loop,
  371: ""The run-time procedure compiled by S+LOOP. It loops until the index
  372: crosses the boundary between limit and limit-sign(n). I.e. a symmetric
  373: version of (+LOOP).""
  374: /* !! check this thoroughly */
  375: Cell diff = n1-nlimit;
  376: Cell newdiff = diff+n;
  377: if (n<0) {
  378:     diff = -diff;
  379:     newdiff = -newdiff;
  380: }
  381: n2=n1+n;
  382: ,if (diff>=0 || newdiff<0) {
  383: ,)
  384: 
  385: \+
  386: 
  387: (for)   ( ncount -- R:nlimit R:ncount )         cmFORTH         paren_for
  388: /* or (for) = >r -- collides with unloop! */
  389: nlimit=0;
  390: :
  391:  r> swap 0 >r >r >r ;
  392: 
  393: (do)    ( nlimit nstart -- R:nlimit R:nstart )  gforth          paren_do
  394: :
  395:  r> swap rot >r >r >r ;
  396: 
  397: (?do) ( #a_target nlimit nstart -- R:nlimit R:nstart ) gforth	paren_question_do
  398: #ifdef NO_IP
  399:     INST_TAIL;
  400: #endif
  401: if (nstart == nlimit) {
  402: #ifdef NO_IP
  403:     JUMP(a_target);
  404: #else
  405:     SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  406:     INST_TAIL; NEXT_P2;
  407: #endif
  408: }
  409: SUPER_CONTINUE;
  410: :
  411:   2dup =
  412:   IF   r> swap rot >r >r
  413:        @ >r
  414:   ELSE r> swap rot >r >r
  415:        cell+ >r
  416:   THEN ;				\ --> CORE-EXT
  417: 
  418: \+xconds
  419: 
  420: (+do)	( #a_target nlimit nstart -- R:nlimit R:nstart ) gforth	paren_plus_do
  421: #ifdef NO_IP
  422:     INST_TAIL;
  423: #endif
  424: if (nstart >= nlimit) {
  425: #ifdef NO_IP
  426:     JUMP(a_target);
  427: #else
  428:     SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  429:     INST_TAIL; NEXT_P2;
  430: #endif
  431: }
  432: SUPER_CONTINUE;
  433: :
  434:  swap 2dup
  435:  r> swap >r swap >r
  436:  >=
  437:  IF
  438:      @
  439:  ELSE
  440:      cell+
  441:  THEN  >r ;
  442: 
  443: (u+do)	( #a_target ulimit ustart -- R:ulimit R:ustart ) gforth	paren_u_plus_do
  444: #ifdef NO_IP
  445:     INST_TAIL;
  446: #endif
  447: if (ustart >= ulimit) {
  448: #ifdef NO_IP
  449: JUMP(a_target);
  450: #else
  451: SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  452: INST_TAIL; NEXT_P2;
  453: #endif
  454: }
  455: SUPER_CONTINUE;
  456: :
  457:  swap 2dup
  458:  r> swap >r swap >r
  459:  u>=
  460:  IF
  461:      @
  462:  ELSE
  463:      cell+
  464:  THEN  >r ;
  465: 
  466: (-do)	( #a_target nlimit nstart -- R:nlimit R:nstart ) gforth	paren_minus_do
  467: #ifdef NO_IP
  468:     INST_TAIL;
  469: #endif
  470: if (nstart <= nlimit) {
  471: #ifdef NO_IP
  472: JUMP(a_target);
  473: #else
  474: SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  475: INST_TAIL; NEXT_P2;
  476: #endif
  477: }
  478: SUPER_CONTINUE;
  479: :
  480:  swap 2dup
  481:  r> swap >r swap >r
  482:  <=
  483:  IF
  484:      @
  485:  ELSE
  486:      cell+
  487:  THEN  >r ;
  488: 
  489: (u-do)	( #a_target ulimit ustart -- R:ulimit R:ustart ) gforth	paren_u_minus_do
  490: #ifdef NO_IP
  491:     INST_TAIL;
  492: #endif
  493: if (ustart <= ulimit) {
  494: #ifdef NO_IP
  495: JUMP(a_target);
  496: #else
  497: SET_IP((Xt *)a_target);
  498: INST_TAIL; NEXT_P2;
  499: #endif
  500: }
  501: SUPER_CONTINUE;
  502: :
  503:  swap 2dup
  504:  r> swap >r swap >r
  505:  u<=
  506:  IF
  507:      @
  508:  ELSE
  509:      cell+
  510:  THEN  >r ;
  511: 
  512: \+
  513: 
  514: \ don't make any assumptions where the return stack is!!
  515: \ implement this in machine code if it should run quickly!
  516: 
  517: i	( R:n -- R:n n )		core
  518: :
  519: \ rp@ cell+ @ ;
  520:   r> r> tuck >r >r ;
  521: 
  522: i'	( R:w R:w2 -- R:w R:w2 w )		gforth		i_tick
  523: :
  524: \ rp@ cell+ cell+ @ ;
  525:   r> r> r> dup itmp ! >r >r >r itmp @ ;
  526: variable itmp
  527: 
  528: j	( R:n R:d1 -- n R:n R:d1 )		core
  529: :
  530: \ rp@ cell+ cell+ cell+ @ ;
  531:   r> r> r> r> dup itmp ! >r >r >r >r itmp @ ;
  532: [IFUNDEF] itmp variable itmp [THEN]
  533: 
  534: k	( R:n R:d1 R:d2 -- n R:n R:d1 R:d2 )		gforth
  535: :
  536: \ rp@ [ 5 cells ] Literal + @ ;
  537:   r> r> r> r> r> r> dup itmp ! >r >r >r >r >r >r itmp @ ;
  538: [IFUNDEF] itmp variable itmp [THEN]
  539: 
  540: \f[THEN]
  541: 
  542: \ digit is high-level: 0/0%
  543: 
  544: \g strings
  545: 
  546: move	( c_from c_to ucount -- )		core
  547: ""Copy the contents of @i{ucount} aus at @i{c-from} to
  548: @i{c-to}. @code{move} works correctly even if the two areas overlap.""
  549: /* !! note that the standard specifies addr, not c-addr */
  550: memmove(c_to,c_from,ucount);
  551: /* make an Ifdef for bsd and others? */
  552: :
  553:  >r 2dup u< IF r> cmove> ELSE r> cmove THEN ;
  554: 
  555: cmove	( c_from c_to u -- )	string	c_move
  556: ""Copy the contents of @i{ucount} characters from data space at
  557: @i{c-from} to @i{c-to}. The copy proceeds @code{char}-by-@code{char}
  558: from low address to high address; i.e., for overlapping areas it is
  559: safe if @i{c-to}=<@i{c-from}.""
  560: cmove(c_from,c_to,u);
  561: :
  562:  bounds ?DO  dup c@ I c! 1+  LOOP  drop ;
  563: 
  564: cmove>	( c_from c_to u -- )	string	c_move_up
  565: ""Copy the contents of @i{ucount} characters from data space at
  566: @i{c-from} to @i{c-to}. The copy proceeds @code{char}-by-@code{char}
  567: from high address to low address; i.e., for overlapping areas it is
  568: safe if @i{c-to}>=@i{c-from}.""
  569: cmove_up(c_from,c_to,u);
  570: :
  571:  dup 0= IF  drop 2drop exit  THEN
  572:  rot over + -rot bounds swap 1-
  573:  DO  1- dup c@ I c!  -1 +LOOP  drop ;
  574: 
  575: fill	( c_addr u c -- )	core
  576: ""Store @i{c} in @i{u} chars starting at @i{c-addr}.""
  577: memset(c_addr,c,u);
  578: :
  579:  -rot bounds
  580:  ?DO  dup I c!  LOOP  drop ;
  581: 
  582: compare	( c_addr1 u1 c_addr2 u2 -- n )	string
  583: ""Compare two strings lexicographically. If they are equal, @i{n} is 0; if
  584: the first string is smaller, @i{n} is -1; if the first string is larger, @i{n}
  585: is 1. Currently this is based on the machine's character
  586: comparison. In the future, this may change to consider the current
  587: locale and its collation order.""
  588: /* close ' to keep fontify happy */ 
  589: n = compare(c_addr1, u1, c_addr2, u2);
  590: :
  591:  rot 2dup swap - >r min swap -text dup
  592:  IF  rdrop  ELSE  drop r> sgn  THEN ;
  593: : sgn ( n -- -1/0/1 )
  594:  dup 0= IF EXIT THEN  0< 2* 1+ ;
  595: 
  596: \ -text is only used by replaced primitives now; move it elsewhere
  597: \ -text	( c_addr1 u c_addr2 -- n )	new	dash_text
  598: \ n = memcmp(c_addr1, c_addr2, u);
  599: \ if (n<0)
  600: \   n = -1;
  601: \ else if (n>0)
  602: \   n = 1;
  603: \ :
  604: \  swap bounds
  605: \  ?DO  dup c@ I c@ = WHILE  1+  LOOP  drop 0
  606: \  ELSE  c@ I c@ - unloop  THEN  sgn ;
  607: \ : sgn ( n -- -1/0/1 )
  608: \  dup 0= IF EXIT THEN  0< 2* 1+ ;
  609: 
  610: toupper	( c1 -- c2 )	gforth
  611: ""If @i{c1} is a lower-case character (in the current locale), @i{c2}
  612: is the equivalent upper-case character. All other characters are unchanged.""
  613: c2 = toupper(c1);
  614: :
  615:  dup [char] a - [ char z char a - 1 + ] Literal u<  bl and - ;
  616: 
  617: /string	( c_addr1 u1 n -- c_addr2 u2 )	string	slash_string
  618: ""Adjust the string specified by @i{c-addr1, u1} to remove @i{n}
  619: characters from the start of the string.""
  620: c_addr2 = c_addr1+n;
  621: u2 = u1-n;
  622: :
  623:  tuck - >r + r> dup 0< IF  - 0  THEN ;
  624: 
  625: \g arith
  626: 
  627: lit	( #w -- w )		gforth
  628: :
  629:  r> dup @ swap cell+ >r ;
  630: 
  631: +	( n1 n2 -- n )		core	plus
  632: n = n1+n2;
  633: 
  634: \ lit+ / lit_plus = lit +
  635: 
  636: lit+	( n1 #n2 -- n )		new	lit_plus
  637: n=n1+n2;
  638: 
  639: \ PFE-0.9.14 has it differently, but the next release will have it as follows
  640: under+	( n1 n2 n3 -- n n2 )	gforth	under_plus
  641: ""add @i{n3} to @i{n1} (giving @i{n})""
  642: n = n1+n3;
  643: :
  644:  rot + swap ;
  645: 
  646: -	( n1 n2 -- n )		core	minus
  647: n = n1-n2;
  648: :
  649:  negate + ;
  650: 
  651: negate	( n1 -- n2 )		core
  652: /* use minus as alias */
  653: n2 = -n1;
  654: :
  655:  invert 1+ ;
  656: 
  657: 1+	( n1 -- n2 )		core		one_plus
  658: n2 = n1+1;
  659: :
  660:  1 + ;
  661: 
  662: 1-	( n1 -- n2 )		core		one_minus
  663: n2 = n1-1;
  664: :
  665:  1 - ;
  666: 
  667: max	( n1 n2 -- n )	core
  668: if (n1<n2)
  669:   n = n2;
  670: else
  671:   n = n1;
  672: :
  673:  2dup < IF swap THEN drop ;
  674: 
  675: min	( n1 n2 -- n )	core
  676: if (n1<n2)
  677:   n = n1;
  678: else
  679:   n = n2;
  680: :
  681:  2dup > IF swap THEN drop ;
  682: 
  683: abs	( n -- u )	core
  684: if (n<0)
  685:   u = -n;
  686: else
  687:   u = n;
  688: :
  689:  dup 0< IF negate THEN ;
  690: 
  691: *	( n1 n2 -- n )		core	star
  692: n = n1*n2;
  693: :
  694:  um* drop ;
  695: 
  696: /	( n1 n2 -- n )		core	slash
  697: n = n1/n2;
  698: :
  699:  /mod nip ;
  700: 
  701: mod	( n1 n2 -- n )		core
  702: n = n1%n2;
  703: :
  704:  /mod drop ;
  705: 
  706: /mod	( n1 n2 -- n3 n4 )		core		slash_mod
  707: n4 = n1/n2;
  708: n3 = n1%n2; /* !! is this correct? look into C standard! */
  709: :
  710:  >r s>d r> fm/mod ;
  711: 
  712: 2*	( n1 -- n2 )		core		two_star
  713: ""Shift left by 1; also works on unsigned numbers""
  714: n2 = 2*n1;
  715: :
  716:  dup + ;
  717: 
  718: 2/	( n1 -- n2 )		core		two_slash
  719: ""Arithmetic shift right by 1.  For signed numbers this is a floored
  720: division by 2 (note that @code{/} not necessarily floors).""
  721: n2 = n1>>1;
  722: :
  723:  dup MINI and IF 1 ELSE 0 THEN
  724:  [ bits/byte cell * 1- ] literal 
  725:  0 DO 2* swap dup 2* >r MINI and 
  726:      IF 1 ELSE 0 THEN or r> swap
  727:  LOOP nip ;
  728: 
  729: fm/mod	( d1 n1 -- n2 n3 )		core		f_m_slash_mod
  730: ""Floored division: @i{d1} = @i{n3}*@i{n1}+@i{n2}, @i{n1}>@i{n2}>=0 or 0>=@i{n2}>@i{n1}.""
  731: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  732: DCell r = fmdiv(d1,n1);
  733: n2=r.hi;
  734: n3=r.lo;
  735: #else
  736: /* assumes that the processor uses either floored or symmetric division */
  737: n3 = d1/n1;
  738: n2 = d1%n1;
  739: /* note that this 1%-3>0 is optimized by the compiler */
  740: if (1%-3>0 && (d1<0) != (n1<0) && n2!=0) {
  741:   n3--;
  742:   n2+=n1;
  743: }
  744: #endif
  745: :
  746:  dup >r dup 0< IF  negate >r dnegate r>  THEN
  747:  over       0< IF  tuck + swap  THEN
  748:  um/mod
  749:  r> 0< IF  swap negate swap  THEN ;
  750: 
  751: sm/rem	( d1 n1 -- n2 n3 )		core		s_m_slash_rem
  752: ""Symmetric division: @i{d1} = @i{n3}*@i{n1}+@i{n2}, sign(@i{n2})=sign(@i{d1}) or 0.""
  753: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  754: DCell r = smdiv(d1,n1);
  755: n2=r.hi;
  756: n3=r.lo;
  757: #else
  758: /* assumes that the processor uses either floored or symmetric division */
  759: n3 = d1/n1;
  760: n2 = d1%n1;
  761: /* note that this 1%-3<0 is optimized by the compiler */
  762: if (1%-3<0 && (d1<0) != (n1<0) && n2!=0) {
  763:   n3++;
  764:   n2-=n1;
  765: }
  766: #endif
  767: :
  768:  over >r dup >r abs -rot
  769:  dabs rot um/mod
  770:  r> r@ xor 0< IF       negate       THEN
  771:  r>        0< IF  swap negate swap  THEN ;
  772: 
  773: m*	( n1 n2 -- d )		core	m_star
  774: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  775: d = mmul(n1,n2);
  776: #else
  777: d = (DCell)n1 * (DCell)n2;
  778: #endif
  779: :
  780:  2dup      0< and >r
  781:  2dup swap 0< and >r
  782:  um* r> - r> - ;
  783: 
  784: um*	( u1 u2 -- ud )		core	u_m_star
  785: /* use u* as alias */
  786: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  787: ud = ummul(u1,u2);
  788: #else
  789: ud = (UDCell)u1 * (UDCell)u2;
  790: #endif
  791: :
  792:    >r >r 0 0 r> r> [ 8 cells ] literal 0
  793:    DO
  794:        over >r dup >r 0< and d2*+ drop
  795:        r> 2* r> swap
  796:    LOOP 2drop ;
  797: : d2*+ ( ud n -- ud+n c )
  798:    over MINI
  799:    and >r >r 2dup d+ swap r> + swap r> ;
  800: 
  801: um/mod	( ud u1 -- u2 u3 )		core	u_m_slash_mod
  802: ""ud=u3*u1+u2, u1>u2>=0""
  803: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  804: UDCell r = umdiv(ud,u1);
  805: u2=r.hi;
  806: u3=r.lo;
  807: #else
  808: u3 = ud/u1;
  809: u2 = ud%u1;
  810: #endif
  811: :
  812:    0 swap [ 8 cells 1 + ] literal 0
  813:    ?DO /modstep
  814:    LOOP drop swap 1 rshift or swap ;
  815: : /modstep ( ud c R: u -- ud-?u c R: u )
  816:    >r over r@ u< 0= or IF r@ - 1 ELSE 0 THEN  d2*+ r> ;
  817: : d2*+ ( ud n -- ud+n c )
  818:    over MINI
  819:    and >r >r 2dup d+ swap r> + swap r> ;
  820: 
  821: m+	( d1 n -- d2 )		double		m_plus
  822: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  823: d2.lo = d1.lo+n;
  824: d2.hi = d1.hi - (n<0) + (d2.lo<d1.lo);
  825: #else
  826: d2 = d1+n;
  827: #endif
  828: :
  829:  s>d d+ ;
  830: 
  831: d+	( d1 d2 -- d )		double	d_plus
  832: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  833: d.lo = d1.lo+d2.lo;
  834: d.hi = d1.hi + d2.hi + (d.lo<d1.lo);
  835: #else
  836: d = d1+d2;
  837: #endif
  838: :
  839:  rot + >r tuck + swap over u> r> swap - ;
  840: 
  841: d-	( d1 d2 -- d )		double		d_minus
  842: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  843: d.lo = d1.lo - d2.lo;
  844: d.hi = d1.hi-d2.hi-(d1.lo<d2.lo);
  845: #else
  846: d = d1-d2;
  847: #endif
  848: :
  849:  dnegate d+ ;
  850: 
  851: dnegate	( d1 -- d2 )		double	d_negate
  852: /* use dminus as alias */
  853: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  854: d2 = dnegate(d1);
  855: #else
  856: d2 = -d1;
  857: #endif
  858: :
  859:  invert swap negate tuck 0= - ;
  860: 
  861: d2*	( d1 -- d2 )		double		d_two_star
  862: ""Shift left by 1; also works on unsigned numbers""
  863: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  864: d2.lo = d1.lo<<1;
  865: d2.hi = (d1.hi<<1) | (d1.lo>>(CELL_BITS-1));
  866: #else
  867: d2 = 2*d1;
  868: #endif
  869: :
  870:  2dup d+ ;
  871: 
  872: d2/	( d1 -- d2 )		double		d_two_slash
  873: ""Arithmetic shift right by 1.  For signed numbers this is a floored
  874: division by 2.""
  875: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  876: d2.hi = d1.hi>>1;
  877: d2.lo= (d1.lo>>1) | (d1.hi<<(CELL_BITS-1));
  878: #else
  879: d2 = d1>>1;
  880: #endif
  881: :
  882:  dup 1 and >r 2/ swap 2/ [ 1 8 cells 1- lshift 1- ] Literal and
  883:  r> IF  [ 1 8 cells 1- lshift ] Literal + THEN  swap ;
  884: 
  885: and	( w1 w2 -- w )		core
  886: w = w1&w2;
  887: 
  888: or	( w1 w2 -- w )		core
  889: w = w1|w2;
  890: :
  891:  invert swap invert and invert ;
  892: 
  893: xor	( w1 w2 -- w )		core	x_or
  894: w = w1^w2;
  895: 
  896: invert	( w1 -- w2 )		core
  897: w2 = ~w1;
  898: :
  899:  MAXU xor ;
  900: 
  901: rshift	( u1 n -- u2 )		core	r_shift
  902: ""Logical shift right by @i{n} bits.""
  903:   u2 = u1>>n;
  904: :
  905:     0 ?DO 2/ MAXI and LOOP ;
  906: 
  907: lshift	( u1 n -- u2 )		core	l_shift
  908:   u2 = u1<<n;
  909: :
  910:     0 ?DO 2* LOOP ;
  911: 
  912: \g compare
  913: 
  914: \ comparisons(prefix, args, prefix, arg1, arg2, wordsets...)
  915: define(comparisons,
  916: $1=	( $2 -- f )		$6	$3equals
  917: f = FLAG($4==$5);
  918: :
  919:     [ char $1x char 0 = [IF]
  920: 	] IF false ELSE true THEN [
  921:     [ELSE]
  922: 	] xor 0= [
  923:     [THEN] ] ;
  924: 
  925: $1<>	( $2 -- f )		$7	$3not_equals
  926: f = FLAG($4!=$5);
  927: :
  928:     [ char $1x char 0 = [IF]
  929: 	] IF true ELSE false THEN [
  930:     [ELSE]
  931: 	] xor 0<> [
  932:     [THEN] ] ;
  933: 
  934: $1<	( $2 -- f )		$8	$3less_than
  935: f = FLAG($4<$5);
  936: :
  937:     [ char $1x char 0 = [IF]
  938: 	] MINI and 0<> [
  939:     [ELSE] char $1x char u = [IF]
  940: 	]   2dup xor 0<  IF nip ELSE - THEN 0<  [
  941: 	[ELSE]
  942: 	    ] MINI xor >r MINI xor r> u< [
  943: 	[THEN]
  944:     [THEN] ] ;
  945: 
  946: $1>	( $2 -- f )		$9	$3greater_than
  947: f = FLAG($4>$5);
  948: :
  949:     [ char $1x char 0 = [IF] ] negate [ [ELSE] ] swap [ [THEN] ]
  950:     $1< ;
  951: 
  952: $1<=	( $2 -- f )		gforth	$3less_or_equal
  953: f = FLAG($4<=$5);
  954: :
  955:     $1> 0= ;
  956: 
  957: $1>=	( $2 -- f )		gforth	$3greater_or_equal
  958: f = FLAG($4>=$5);
  959: :
  960:     [ char $1x char 0 = [IF] ] negate [ [ELSE] ] swap [ [THEN] ]
  961:     $1<= ;
  962: 
  963: )
  964: 
  965: comparisons(0, n, zero_, n, 0, core, core-ext, core, core-ext)
  966: comparisons(, n1 n2, , n1, n2, core, core-ext, core, core)
  967: comparisons(u, u1 u2, u_, u1, u2, gforth, gforth, core, core-ext)
  968: 
  969: \ dcomparisons(prefix, args, prefix, arg1, arg2, wordsets...)
  970: define(dcomparisons,
  971: $1=	( $2 -- f )		$6	$3equals
  972: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  973: f = FLAG($4.lo==$5.lo && $4.hi==$5.hi);
  974: #else
  975: f = FLAG($4==$5);
  976: #endif
  977: 
  978: $1<>	( $2 -- f )		$7	$3not_equals
  979: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  980: f = FLAG($4.lo!=$5.lo || $4.hi!=$5.hi);
  981: #else
  982: f = FLAG($4!=$5);
  983: #endif
  984: 
  985: $1<	( $2 -- f )		$8	$3less_than
  986: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  987: f = FLAG($4.hi==$5.hi ? $4.lo<$5.lo : $4.hi<$5.hi);
  988: #else
  989: f = FLAG($4<$5);
  990: #endif
  991: 
  992: $1>	( $2 -- f )		$9	$3greater_than
  993: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
  994: f = FLAG($4.hi==$5.hi ? $4.lo>$5.lo : $4.hi>$5.hi);
  995: #else
  996: f = FLAG($4>$5);
  997: #endif
  998: 
  999: $1<=	( $2 -- f )		gforth	$3less_or_equal
 1000: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
 1001: f = FLAG($4.hi==$5.hi ? $4.lo<=$5.lo : $4.hi<=$5.hi);
 1002: #else
 1003: f = FLAG($4<=$5);
 1004: #endif
 1005: 
 1006: $1>=	( $2 -- f )		gforth	$3greater_or_equal
 1007: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
 1008: f = FLAG($4.hi==$5.hi ? $4.lo>=$5.lo : $4.hi>=$5.hi);
 1009: #else
 1010: f = FLAG($4>=$5);
 1011: #endif
 1012: 
 1013: )
 1014: 
 1015: \+dcomps
 1016: 
 1017: dcomparisons(d, d1 d2, d_, d1, d2, double, gforth, double, gforth)
 1018: dcomparisons(d0, d, d_zero_, d, DZERO, double, gforth, double, gforth)
 1019: dcomparisons(du, ud1 ud2, d_u_, ud1, ud2, gforth, gforth, double-ext, gforth)
 1020: 
 1021: \+
 1022: 
 1023: within	( u1 u2 u3 -- f )		core-ext
 1024: ""u2=<u1<u3 or: u3=<u2 and u1 is not in [u3,u2).  This works for
 1025: unsigned and signed numbers (but not a mixture).  Another way to think
 1026: about this word is to consider the numbers as a circle (wrapping
 1027: around from @code{max-u} to 0 for unsigned, and from @code{max-n} to
 1028: min-n for signed numbers); now consider the range from u2 towards
 1029: increasing numbers up to and excluding u3 (giving an empty range if
 1030: u2=u3); if u1 is in this range, @code{within} returns true.""
 1031: f = FLAG(u1-u2 < u3-u2);
 1032: :
 1033:  over - >r - r> u< ;
 1034: 
 1035: \g stack
 1036: 
 1037: useraddr	( #u -- a_addr )	new
 1038: a_addr = (Cell *)(up+u);
 1039: 
 1040: up!	( a_addr -- )	gforth	up_store
 1041: UP=up=(char *)a_addr;
 1042: :
 1043:  up ! ;
 1044: Variable UP
 1045: 
 1046: sp@	( -- a_addr )		gforth		sp_fetch
 1047: a_addr = sp+1;
 1048: 
 1049: sp!	( a_addr -- )		gforth		sp_store
 1050: sp = a_addr;
 1051: /* works with and without spTOS caching */
 1052: 
 1053: rp@	( -- a_addr )		gforth		rp_fetch
 1054: a_addr = rp;
 1055: 
 1056: rp!	( a_addr -- )		gforth		rp_store
 1057: rp = a_addr;
 1058: 
 1059: \+floating
 1060: 
 1061: fp@	( -- f_addr )	gforth	fp_fetch
 1062: f_addr = fp;
 1063: 
 1064: fp!	( f_addr -- )	gforth	fp_store
 1065: fp = f_addr;
 1066: 
 1067: \+
 1068: 
 1069: >r	( w -- R:w )		core	to_r
 1070: :
 1071:  (>r) ;
 1072: : (>r)  rp@ cell+ @ rp@ ! rp@ cell+ ! ;
 1073: 
 1074: r>	( R:w -- w )		core	r_from
 1075: :
 1076:  rp@ cell+ @ rp@ @ rp@ cell+ ! (rdrop) rp@ ! ;
 1077: Create (rdrop) ' ;s A,
 1078: 
 1079: rdrop	( R:w -- )		gforth
 1080: :
 1081:  r> r> drop >r ;
 1082: 
 1083: 2>r	( w1 w2 -- R:w1 R:w2 )	core-ext	two_to_r
 1084: :
 1085:  swap r> swap >r swap >r >r ;
 1086: 
 1087: 2r>	( R:w1 R:w2 -- w1 w2 )	core-ext	two_r_from
 1088: :
 1089:  r> r> swap r> swap >r swap ;
 1090: 
 1091: 2r@	( R:w1 R:w2 -- R:w1 R:w2 w1 w2 )	core-ext	two_r_fetch
 1092: :
 1093:  i' j ;
 1094: 
 1095: 2rdrop	(  R:w1 R:w2 -- )		gforth	two_r_drop
 1096: :
 1097:  r> r> drop r> drop >r ;
 1098: 
 1099: over	( w1 w2 -- w1 w2 w1 )		core
 1100: :
 1101:  sp@ cell+ @ ;
 1102: 
 1103: drop	( w -- )		core
 1104: :
 1105:  IF THEN ;
 1106: 
 1107: swap	( w1 w2 -- w2 w1 )		core
 1108: :
 1109:  >r (swap) ! r> (swap) @ ;
 1110: Variable (swap)
 1111: 
 1112: dup	( w -- w w )		core	dupe
 1113: :
 1114:  sp@ @ ;
 1115: 
 1116: rot	( w1 w2 w3 -- w2 w3 w1 )	core	rote
 1117: :
 1118: [ defined? (swap) [IF] ]
 1119:     (swap) ! (rot) ! >r (rot) @ (swap) @ r> ;
 1120: Variable (rot)
 1121: [ELSE] ]
 1122:     >r swap r> swap ;
 1123: [THEN]
 1124: 
 1125: -rot	( w1 w2 w3 -- w3 w1 w2 )	gforth	not_rote
 1126: :
 1127:  rot rot ;
 1128: 
 1129: nip	( w1 w2 -- w2 )		core-ext
 1130: :
 1131:  swap drop ;
 1132: 
 1133: tuck	( w1 w2 -- w2 w1 w2 )	core-ext
 1134: :
 1135:  swap over ;
 1136: 
 1137: ?dup	( w -- w )			core	question_dupe
 1138: ""Actually the stack effect is: @code{( w -- 0 | w w )}.  It performs a
 1139: @code{dup} if w is nonzero.""
 1140: if (w!=0) {
 1141:   IF_spTOS(*sp-- = w;)
 1142: #ifndef USE_TOS
 1143:   *--sp = w;
 1144: #endif
 1145: }
 1146: :
 1147:  dup IF dup THEN ;
 1148: 
 1149: pick	( u -- w )			core-ext
 1150: ""Actually the stack effect is @code{ x0 ... xu u -- x0 ... xu x0 }.""
 1151: w = sp[u+1];
 1152: :
 1153:  1+ cells sp@ + @ ;
 1154: 
 1155: 2drop	( w1 w2 -- )		core	two_drop
 1156: :
 1157:  drop drop ;
 1158: 
 1159: 2dup	( w1 w2 -- w1 w2 w1 w2 )	core	two_dupe
 1160: :
 1161:  over over ;
 1162: 
 1163: 2over	( w1 w2 w3 w4 -- w1 w2 w3 w4 w1 w2 )	core	two_over
 1164: :
 1165:  3 pick 3 pick ;
 1166: 
 1167: 2swap	( w1 w2 w3 w4 -- w3 w4 w1 w2 )	core	two_swap
 1168: :
 1169:  rot >r rot r> ;
 1170: 
 1171: 2rot	( w1 w2 w3 w4 w5 w6 -- w3 w4 w5 w6 w1 w2 )	double-ext	two_rote
 1172: :
 1173:  >r >r 2swap r> r> 2swap ;
 1174: 
 1175: 2nip	( w1 w2 w3 w4 -- w3 w4 )	gforth	two_nip
 1176: :
 1177:  2swap 2drop ;
 1178: 
 1179: 2tuck	( w1 w2 w3 w4 -- w3 w4 w1 w2 w3 w4 )	gforth	two_tuck
 1180: :
 1181:  2swap 2over ;
 1182: 
 1183: \ toggle is high-level: 0.11/0.42%
 1184: 
 1185: \g memory
 1186: 
 1187: @	( a_addr -- w )		core	fetch
 1188: ""@i{w} is the cell stored at @i{a_addr}.""
 1189: w = *a_addr;
 1190: 
 1191: \ lit@ / lit_fetch = lit @
 1192: 
 1193: lit@		( #a_addr -- w ) new	lit_fetch
 1194: w = *a_addr;
 1195: 
 1196: !	( w a_addr -- )		core	store
 1197: ""Store @i{w} into the cell at @i{a-addr}.""
 1198: *a_addr = w;
 1199: 
 1200: +!	( n a_addr -- )		core	plus_store
 1201: ""Add @i{n} to the cell at @i{a-addr}.""
 1202: *a_addr += n;
 1203: :
 1204:  tuck @ + swap ! ;
 1205: 
 1206: c@	( c_addr -- c )		core	c_fetch
 1207: ""@i{c} is the char stored at @i{c_addr}.""
 1208: c = *c_addr;
 1209: :
 1210: [ bigendian [IF] ]
 1211:     [ cell>bit 4 = [IF] ]
 1212: 	dup [ 0 cell - ] Literal and @ swap 1 and
 1213: 	IF  $FF and  ELSE  8>>  THEN  ;
 1214:     [ [ELSE] ]
 1215: 	dup [ cell 1- ] literal and
 1216: 	tuck - @ swap [ cell 1- ] literal xor
 1217:  	0 ?DO 8>> LOOP $FF and
 1218:     [ [THEN] ]
 1219: [ [ELSE] ]
 1220:     [ cell>bit 4 = [IF] ]
 1221: 	dup [ 0 cell - ] Literal and @ swap 1 and
 1222: 	IF  8>>  ELSE  $FF and  THEN
 1223:     [ [ELSE] ]
 1224: 	dup [ cell  1- ] literal and 
 1225: 	tuck - @ swap
 1226: 	0 ?DO 8>> LOOP 255 and
 1227:     [ [THEN] ]
 1228: [ [THEN] ]
 1229: ;
 1230: : 8>> 2/ 2/ 2/ 2/  2/ 2/ 2/ 2/ ;
 1231: 
 1232: c!	( c c_addr -- )		core	c_store
 1233: ""Store @i{c} into the char at @i{c-addr}.""
 1234: *c_addr = c;
 1235: :
 1236: [ bigendian [IF] ]
 1237:     [ cell>bit 4 = [IF] ]
 1238: 	tuck 1 and IF  $FF and  ELSE  8<<  THEN >r
 1239: 	dup -2 and @ over 1 and cells masks + @ and
 1240: 	r> or swap -2 and ! ;
 1241: 	Create masks $00FF , $FF00 ,
 1242:     [ELSE] ]
 1243: 	dup [ cell 1- ] literal and dup 
 1244: 	[ cell 1- ] literal xor >r
 1245: 	- dup @ $FF r@ 0 ?DO 8<< LOOP invert and
 1246: 	rot $FF and r> 0 ?DO 8<< LOOP or swap ! ;
 1247:     [THEN]
 1248: [ELSE] ]
 1249:     [ cell>bit 4 = [IF] ]
 1250: 	tuck 1 and IF  8<<  ELSE  $FF and  THEN >r
 1251: 	dup -2 and @ over 1 and cells masks + @ and
 1252: 	r> or swap -2 and ! ;
 1253: 	Create masks $FF00 , $00FF ,
 1254:     [ELSE] ]
 1255: 	dup [ cell 1- ] literal and dup >r
 1256: 	- dup @ $FF r@ 0 ?DO 8<< LOOP invert and
 1257: 	rot $FF and r> 0 ?DO 8<< LOOP or swap ! ;
 1258:     [THEN]
 1259: [THEN]
 1260: : 8<< 2* 2* 2* 2*  2* 2* 2* 2* ;
 1261: 
 1262: 2!	( w1 w2 a_addr -- )		core	two_store
 1263: ""Store @i{w2} into the cell at @i{c-addr} and @i{w1} into the next cell.""
 1264: a_addr[0] = w2;
 1265: a_addr[1] = w1;
 1266: :
 1267:  tuck ! cell+ ! ;
 1268: 
 1269: 2@	( a_addr -- w1 w2 )		core	two_fetch
 1270: ""@i{w2} is the content of the cell stored at @i{a-addr}, @i{w1} is
 1271: the content of the next cell.""
 1272: w2 = a_addr[0];
 1273: w1 = a_addr[1];
 1274: :
 1275:  dup cell+ @ swap @ ;
 1276: 
 1277: cell+	( a_addr1 -- a_addr2 )	core	cell_plus
 1278: ""@code{1 cells +}""
 1279: a_addr2 = a_addr1+1;
 1280: :
 1281:  cell + ;
 1282: 
 1283: cells	( n1 -- n2 )		core
 1284: "" @i{n2} is the number of address units of @i{n1} cells.""
 1285: n2 = n1 * sizeof(Cell);
 1286: :
 1287:  [ cell
 1288:  2/ dup [IF] ] 2* [ [THEN]
 1289:  2/ dup [IF] ] 2* [ [THEN]
 1290:  2/ dup [IF] ] 2* [ [THEN]
 1291:  2/ dup [IF] ] 2* [ [THEN]
 1292:  drop ] ;
 1293: 
 1294: char+	( c_addr1 -- c_addr2 )	core	char_plus
 1295: ""@code{1 chars +}.""
 1296: c_addr2 = c_addr1 + 1;
 1297: :
 1298:  1+ ;
 1299: 
 1300: (chars)	( n1 -- n2 )	gforth	paren_chars
 1301: n2 = n1 * sizeof(Char);
 1302: :
 1303:  ;
 1304: 
 1305: count	( c_addr1 -- c_addr2 u )	core
 1306: ""@i{c-addr2} is the first character and @i{u} the length of the
 1307: counted string at @i{c-addr1}.""
 1308: u = *c_addr1;
 1309: c_addr2 = c_addr1+1;
 1310: :
 1311:  dup 1+ swap c@ ;
 1312: 
 1313: \g compiler
 1314: 
 1315: (listlfind)	( c_addr u longname1 -- longname2 )	new	paren_listlfind
 1316: longname2=listlfind(c_addr, u, longname1);
 1317: :
 1318:     BEGIN  dup WHILE  (findl-samelen)  dup  WHILE
 1319: 	>r 2dup r@ cell+ cell+ capscomp  0=
 1320: 	IF  2drop r>  EXIT  THEN
 1321: 	r> @
 1322:     REPEAT  THEN  nip nip ;
 1323: : (findl-samelen) ( u longname1 -- u longname2/0 )
 1324:     BEGIN  2dup cell+ @ lcount-mask and <> WHILE  @  dup 0= UNTIL  THEN ;
 1325: 
 1326: \+hash
 1327: 
 1328: (hashlfind)	( c_addr u a_addr -- longname2 )	new	paren_hashlfind
 1329: longname2 = hashlfind(c_addr, u, a_addr);
 1330: :
 1331:  BEGIN  dup  WHILE
 1332:         2@ >r >r dup r@ cell+ @ lcount-mask and =
 1333:         IF  2dup r@ cell+ cell+ capscomp 0=
 1334: 	    IF  2drop r> rdrop  EXIT  THEN  THEN
 1335: 	rdrop r>
 1336:  REPEAT nip nip ;
 1337: 
 1338: (tablelfind)	( c_addr u a_addr -- longname2 )	new	paren_tablelfind
 1339: ""A case-sensitive variant of @code{(hashfind)}""
 1340: longname2 = tablelfind(c_addr, u, a_addr);
 1341: :
 1342:  BEGIN  dup  WHILE
 1343:         2@ >r >r dup r@ cell+ @ lcount-mask and =
 1344:         IF  2dup r@ cell+ cell+ -text 0=
 1345: 	    IF  2drop r> rdrop  EXIT  THEN  THEN
 1346: 	rdrop r>
 1347:  REPEAT nip nip ;
 1348: 
 1349: (hashkey1)	( c_addr u ubits -- ukey )		gforth	paren_hashkey1
 1350: ""ukey is the hash key for the string c_addr u fitting in ubits bits""
 1351: ukey = hashkey1(c_addr, u, ubits);
 1352: :
 1353:  dup rot-values + c@ over 1 swap lshift 1- >r
 1354:  tuck - 2swap r> 0 2swap bounds
 1355:  ?DO  dup 4 pick lshift swap 3 pick rshift or
 1356:       I c@ toupper xor
 1357:       over and  LOOP
 1358:  nip nip nip ;
 1359: Create rot-values
 1360:   5 c, 0 c, 1 c, 2 c, 3 c,  4 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c,
 1361:   3 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c,  7 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c,
 1362:   7 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c,  6 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c, 5 c,
 1363:   7 c, 5 c, 5 c,
 1364: 
 1365: \+
 1366: 
 1367: (parse-white)	( c_addr1 u1 -- c_addr2 u2 )	gforth	paren_parse_white
 1368: struct Cellpair r=parse_white(c_addr1, u1);
 1369: c_addr2 = (Char *)(r.n1);
 1370: u2 = r.n2;
 1371: :
 1372:  BEGIN  dup  WHILE  over c@ bl <=  WHILE  1 /string
 1373:  REPEAT  THEN  2dup
 1374:  BEGIN  dup  WHILE  over c@ bl >   WHILE  1 /string
 1375:  REPEAT  THEN  nip - ;
 1376: 
 1377: aligned	( c_addr -- a_addr )	core
 1378: "" @i{a-addr} is the first aligned address greater than or equal to @i{c-addr}.""
 1379: a_addr = (Cell *)((((Cell)c_addr)+(sizeof(Cell)-1))&(-sizeof(Cell)));
 1380: :
 1381:  [ cell 1- ] Literal + [ -1 cells ] Literal and ;
 1382: 
 1383: faligned	( c_addr -- f_addr )	float	f_aligned
 1384: "" @i{f-addr} is the first float-aligned address greater than or equal to @i{c-addr}.""
 1385: f_addr = (Float *)((((Cell)c_addr)+(sizeof(Float)-1))&(-sizeof(Float)));
 1386: :
 1387:  [ 1 floats 1- ] Literal + [ -1 floats ] Literal and ;
 1388: 
 1389: \ threading stuff is currently only interesting if we have a compiler
 1390: \fhas? standardthreading has? compiler and [IF]
 1391: threading-method	( -- n )	gforth	threading_method
 1392: ""0 if the engine is direct threaded. Note that this may change during
 1393: the lifetime of an image.""
 1394: #if defined(DOUBLY_INDIRECT)
 1395: n=2;
 1396: #else
 1397: # if defined(DIRECT_THREADED)
 1398: n=0;
 1399: # else
 1400: n=1;
 1401: # endif
 1402: #endif
 1403: :
 1404:  1 ;
 1405: 
 1406: \f[THEN]
 1407: 
 1408: \g hostos
 1409: 
 1410: key-file	( wfileid -- n )		gforth	paren_key_file
 1411: #ifdef HAS_FILE
 1412: fflush(stdout);
 1413: n = key((FILE*)wfileid);
 1414: #else
 1415: n = key(stdin);
 1416: #endif
 1417: 
 1418: key?-file	( wfileid -- n )		facility	key_q_file
 1419: #ifdef HAS_FILE
 1420: fflush(stdout);
 1421: n = key_query((FILE*)wfileid);
 1422: #else
 1423: n = key_query(stdin);
 1424: #endif
 1425: 
 1426: \+os
 1427: 
 1428: stdin	( -- wfileid )	gforth
 1429: wfileid = (Cell)stdin;
 1430: 
 1431: stdout	( -- wfileid )	gforth
 1432: wfileid = (Cell)stdout;
 1433: 
 1434: stderr	( -- wfileid )	gforth
 1435: wfileid = (Cell)stderr;
 1436: 
 1437: form	( -- urows ucols )	gforth
 1438: ""The number of lines and columns in the terminal. These numbers may change
 1439: with the window size.""
 1440: /* we could block SIGWINCH here to get a consistent size, but I don't
 1441:  think this is necessary or always beneficial */
 1442: urows=rows;
 1443: ucols=cols;
 1444: 
 1445: flush-icache	( c_addr u -- )	gforth	flush_icache
 1446: ""Make sure that the instruction cache of the processor (if there is
 1447: one) does not contain stale data at @i{c-addr} and @i{u} bytes
 1448: afterwards. @code{END-CODE} performs a @code{flush-icache}
 1449: automatically. Caveat: @code{flush-icache} might not work on your
 1450: installation; this is usually the case if direct threading is not
 1451: supported on your machine (take a look at your @file{machine.h}) and
 1452: your machine has a separate instruction cache. In such cases,
 1453: @code{flush-icache} does nothing instead of flushing the instruction
 1454: cache.""
 1455: FLUSH_ICACHE(c_addr,u);
 1456: 
 1457: (bye)	( n -- )	gforth	paren_bye
 1458: SUPER_END;
 1459: return (Label *)n;
 1460: 
 1461: (system)	( c_addr u -- wretval wior )	gforth	paren_system
 1462: #ifndef MSDOS
 1463: int old_tp=terminal_prepped;
 1464: deprep_terminal();
 1465: #endif
 1466: wretval=system(cstr(c_addr,u,1)); /* ~ expansion on first part of string? */
 1467: wior = IOR(wretval==-1 || (wretval==127 && errno != 0));
 1468: #ifndef MSDOS
 1469: if (old_tp)
 1470:   prep_terminal();
 1471: #endif
 1472: 
 1473: getenv	( c_addr1 u1 -- c_addr2 u2 )	gforth
 1474: ""The string @i{c-addr1 u1} specifies an environment variable. The string @i{c-addr2 u2}
 1475: is the host operating system's expansion of that environment variable. If the
 1476: environment variable does not exist, @i{c-addr2 u2} specifies a string 0 characters
 1477: in length.""
 1478: /* close ' to keep fontify happy */
 1479: c_addr2 = getenv(cstr(c_addr1,u1,1));
 1480: u2 = (c_addr2 == NULL ? 0 : strlen(c_addr2));
 1481: 
 1482: open-pipe	( c_addr u wfam -- wfileid wior )	gforth	open_pipe
 1483: wfileid=(Cell)popen(cstr(c_addr,u,1),pfileattr[wfam]); /* ~ expansion of 1st arg? */
 1484: wior = IOR(wfileid==0); /* !! the man page says that errno is not set reliably */
 1485: 
 1486: close-pipe	( wfileid -- wretval wior )		gforth	close_pipe
 1487: wretval = pclose((FILE *)wfileid);
 1488: wior = IOR(wretval==-1);
 1489: 
 1490: time&date	( -- nsec nmin nhour nday nmonth nyear )	facility-ext	time_and_date
 1491: ""Report the current time of day. Seconds, minutes and hours are numbered from 0.
 1492: Months are numbered from 1.""
 1493: #if 1
 1494: time_t now;
 1495: struct tm *ltime;
 1496: time(&now);
 1497: ltime=localtime(&now);
 1498: #else
 1499: struct timeval time1;
 1500: struct timezone zone1;
 1501: struct tm *ltime;
 1502: gettimeofday(&time1,&zone1);
 1503: /* !! Single Unix specification: 
 1504:    If tzp is not a null pointer, the behaviour is unspecified. */
 1505: ltime=localtime((time_t *)&time1.tv_sec);
 1506: #endif
 1507: nyear =ltime->tm_year+1900;
 1508: nmonth=ltime->tm_mon+1;
 1509: nday  =ltime->tm_mday;
 1510: nhour =ltime->tm_hour;
 1511: nmin  =ltime->tm_min;
 1512: nsec  =ltime->tm_sec;
 1513: 
 1514: ms	( n -- )	facility-ext
 1515: ""Wait at least @i{n} milli-second.""
 1516: struct timeval timeout;
 1517: timeout.tv_sec=n/1000;
 1518: timeout.tv_usec=1000*(n%1000);
 1519: (void)select(0,0,0,0,&timeout);
 1520: 
 1521: allocate	( u -- a_addr wior )	memory
 1522: ""Allocate @i{u} address units of contiguous data space. The initial
 1523: contents of the data space is undefined. If the allocation is successful,
 1524: @i{a-addr} is the start address of the allocated region and @i{wior}
 1525: is 0. If the allocation fails, @i{a-addr} is undefined and @i{wior}
 1526: is a non-zero I/O result code.""
 1527: a_addr = (Cell *)malloc(u?u:1);
 1528: wior = IOR(a_addr==NULL);
 1529: 
 1530: free	( a_addr -- wior )		memory
 1531: ""Return the region of data space starting at @i{a-addr} to the system.
 1532: The region must originally have been obtained using @code{allocate} or
 1533: @code{resize}. If the operational is successful, @i{wior} is 0.
 1534: If the operation fails, @i{wior} is a non-zero I/O result code.""
 1535: free(a_addr);
 1536: wior = 0;
 1537: 
 1538: resize	( a_addr1 u -- a_addr2 wior )	memory
 1539: ""Change the size of the allocated area at @i{a-addr1} to @i{u}
 1540: address units, possibly moving the contents to a different
 1541: area. @i{a-addr2} is the address of the resulting area.
 1542: If the operation is successful, @i{wior} is 0.
 1543: If the operation fails, @i{wior} is a non-zero
 1544: I/O result code. If @i{a-addr1} is 0, Gforth's (but not the Standard)
 1545: @code{resize} @code{allocate}s @i{u} address units.""
 1546: /* the following check is not necessary on most OSs, but it is needed
 1547:    on SunOS 4.1.2. */
 1548: /* close ' to keep fontify happy */
 1549: if (a_addr1==NULL)
 1550:   a_addr2 = (Cell *)malloc(u);
 1551: else
 1552:   a_addr2 = (Cell *)realloc(a_addr1, u);
 1553: wior = IOR(a_addr2==NULL);	/* !! Define a return code */
 1554: 
 1555: strerror	( n -- c_addr u )	gforth
 1556: c_addr = strerror(n);
 1557: u = strlen(c_addr);
 1558: 
 1559: strsignal	( n -- c_addr u )	gforth
 1560: c_addr = strsignal(n);
 1561: u = strlen(c_addr);
 1562: 
 1563: call-c	( w -- )	gforth	call_c
 1564: ""Call the C function pointed to by @i{w}. The C function has to
 1565: access the stack itself. The stack pointers are exported in the global
 1566: variables @code{SP} and @code{FP}.""
 1567: /* This is a first attempt at support for calls to C. This may change in
 1568:    the future */
 1569: IF_fpTOS(fp[0]=fpTOS);
 1570: FP=fp;
 1571: SP=sp;
 1572: ((void (*)())w)();
 1573: sp=SP;
 1574: fp=FP;
 1575: IF_spTOS(spTOS=sp[0]);
 1576: IF_fpTOS(fpTOS=fp[0]);
 1577: 
 1578: \+
 1579: \+file
 1580: 
 1581: close-file	( wfileid -- wior )		file	close_file
 1582: wior = IOR(fclose((FILE *)wfileid)==EOF);
 1583: 
 1584: open-file	( c_addr u wfam -- wfileid wior )	file	open_file
 1585: wfileid = (Cell)fopen(tilde_cstr(c_addr, u, 1), fileattr[wfam]);
 1586: wior =  IOR(wfileid == 0);
 1587: 
 1588: create-file	( c_addr u wfam -- wfileid wior )	file	create_file
 1589: Cell	fd;
 1590: fd = open(tilde_cstr(c_addr, u, 1), O_CREAT|O_TRUNC|ufileattr[wfam], 0666);
 1591: if (fd != -1) {
 1592:   wfileid = (Cell)fdopen(fd, fileattr[wfam]);
 1593:   wior = IOR(wfileid == 0);
 1594: } else {
 1595:   wfileid = 0;
 1596:   wior = IOR(1);
 1597: }
 1598: 
 1599: delete-file	( c_addr u -- wior )		file	delete_file
 1600: wior = IOR(unlink(tilde_cstr(c_addr, u, 1))==-1);
 1601: 
 1602: rename-file	( c_addr1 u1 c_addr2 u2 -- wior )	file-ext	rename_file
 1603: ""Rename file @i{c_addr1 u1} to new name @i{c_addr2 u2}""
 1604: wior = rename_file(c_addr1, u1, c_addr2, u2);
 1605: 
 1606: file-position	( wfileid -- ud wior )	file	file_position
 1607: /* !! use tell and lseek? */
 1608: ud = OFF2UD(ftello((FILE *)wfileid));
 1609: wior = IOR(UD2OFF(ud)==-1);
 1610: 
 1611: reposition-file	( ud wfileid -- wior )	file	reposition_file
 1612: wior = IOR(fseeko((FILE *)wfileid, UD2OFF(ud), SEEK_SET)==-1);
 1613: 
 1614: file-size	( wfileid -- ud wior )	file	file_size
 1615: struct stat buf;
 1616: wior = IOR(fstat(fileno((FILE *)wfileid), &buf)==-1);
 1617: ud = OFF2UD(buf.st_size);
 1618: 
 1619: resize-file	( ud wfileid -- wior )	file	resize_file
 1620: wior = IOR(ftruncate(fileno((FILE *)wfileid), UD2OFF(ud))==-1);
 1621: 
 1622: read-file	( c_addr u1 wfileid -- u2 wior )	file	read_file
 1623: /* !! fread does not guarantee enough */
 1624: u2 = fread(c_addr, sizeof(Char), u1, (FILE *)wfileid);
 1625: wior = FILEIO(u2<u1 && ferror((FILE *)wfileid));
 1626: /* !! is the value of ferror errno-compatible? */
 1627: if (wior)
 1628:   clearerr((FILE *)wfileid);
 1629: 
 1630: (read-line)	( c_addr u1 wfileid -- u2 flag u3 wior ) file	paren_read_line
 1631: struct Cellquad r = read_line(c_addr, u1, wfileid);
 1632: u2   = r.n1;
 1633: flag = r.n2;
 1634: u3   = r.n3;
 1635: wior = r.n4;
 1636: 
 1637: \+
 1638: 
 1639: write-file	( c_addr u1 wfileid -- wior )	file	write_file
 1640: /* !! fwrite does not guarantee enough */
 1641: #ifdef HAS_FILE
 1642: {
 1643:   UCell u2 = fwrite(c_addr, sizeof(Char), u1, (FILE *)wfileid);
 1644:   wior = FILEIO(u2<u1 && ferror((FILE *)wfileid));
 1645:   if (wior)
 1646:     clearerr((FILE *)wfileid);
 1647: }
 1648: #else
 1649: TYPE(c_addr, u1);
 1650: #endif
 1651: 
 1652: emit-file	( c wfileid -- wior )	gforth	emit_file
 1653: #ifdef HAS_FILE
 1654: wior = FILEIO(putc(c, (FILE *)wfileid)==EOF);
 1655: if (wior)
 1656:   clearerr((FILE *)wfileid);
 1657: #else
 1658: PUTC(c);
 1659: #endif
 1660: 
 1661: \+file
 1662: 
 1663: flush-file	( wfileid -- wior )		file-ext	flush_file
 1664: wior = IOR(fflush((FILE *) wfileid)==EOF);
 1665: 
 1666: file-status	( c_addr u -- wfam wior )	file-ext	file_status
 1667: struct Cellpair r = file_status(c_addr, u);
 1668: wfam = r.n1;
 1669: wior = r.n2;
 1670: 
 1671: file-eof?	( wfileid -- flag )	gforth	file_eof_query
 1672: flag = FLAG(feof((FILE *) wfileid));
 1673: 
 1674: open-dir	( c_addr u -- wdirid wior )	gforth	open_dir
 1675: ""Open the directory specified by @i{c-addr, u}
 1676: and return @i{dir-id} for futher access to it.""
 1677: wdirid = (Cell)opendir(tilde_cstr(c_addr, u, 1));
 1678: wior =  IOR(wdirid == 0);
 1679: 
 1680: read-dir	( c_addr u1 wdirid -- u2 flag wior )	gforth	read_dir
 1681: ""Attempt to read the next entry from the directory specified
 1682: by @i{dir-id} to the buffer of length @i{u1} at address @i{c-addr}. 
 1683: If the attempt fails because there is no more entries,
 1684: @i{ior}=0, @i{flag}=0, @i{u2}=0, and the buffer is unmodified.
 1685: If the attempt to read the next entry fails because of any other reason, 
 1686: return @i{ior}<>0.
 1687: If the attempt succeeds, store file name to the buffer at @i{c-addr}
 1688: and return @i{ior}=0, @i{flag}=true and @i{u2} equal to the size of the file name.
 1689: If the length of the file name is greater than @i{u1}, 
 1690: store first @i{u1} characters from file name into the buffer and
 1691: indicate "name too long" with @i{ior}, @i{flag}=true, and @i{u2}=@i{u1}.""
 1692: struct dirent * dent;
 1693: dent = readdir((DIR *)wdirid);
 1694: wior = 0;
 1695: flag = -1;
 1696: if(dent == NULL) {
 1697:   u2 = 0;
 1698:   flag = 0;
 1699: } else {
 1700:   u2 = strlen(dent->d_name);
 1701:   if(u2 > u1) {
 1702:     u2 = u1;
 1703:     wior = -512-ENAMETOOLONG;
 1704:   }
 1705:   memmove(c_addr, dent->d_name, u2);
 1706: }
 1707: 
 1708: close-dir	( wdirid -- wior )	gforth	close_dir
 1709: ""Close the directory specified by @i{dir-id}.""
 1710: wior = IOR(closedir((DIR *)wdirid));
 1711: 
 1712: filename-match	( c_addr1 u1 c_addr2 u2 -- flag )	gforth	match_file
 1713: char * string = cstr(c_addr1, u1, 1);
 1714: char * pattern = cstr(c_addr2, u2, 0);
 1715: flag = FLAG(!fnmatch(pattern, string, 0));
 1716: 
 1717: \+
 1718: 
 1719: newline	( -- c_addr u )	gforth
 1720: ""String containing the newline sequence of the host OS""
 1721: char newline[] = {
 1722: #if DIRSEP=='/'
 1723: /* Unix */
 1724: '\n'
 1725: #else
 1726: /* DOS, Win, OS/2 */
 1727: '\r','\n'
 1728: #endif
 1729: };
 1730: c_addr=newline;
 1731: u=sizeof(newline);
 1732: :
 1733:  "newline count ;
 1734: Create "newline e? crlf [IF] 2 c, $0D c, [ELSE] 1 c, [THEN] $0A c,
 1735: 
 1736: \+os
 1737: 
 1738: utime	( -- dtime )	gforth
 1739: ""Report the current time in microseconds since some epoch.""
 1740: struct timeval time1;
 1741: gettimeofday(&time1,NULL);
 1742: dtime = timeval2us(&time1);
 1743: 
 1744: cputime ( -- duser dsystem ) gforth
 1745: ""duser and dsystem are the respective user- and system-level CPU
 1746: times used since the start of the Forth system (excluding child
 1747: processes), in microseconds (the granularity may be much larger,
 1748: however).  On platforms without the getrusage call, it reports elapsed
 1749: time (since some epoch) for duser and 0 for dsystem.""
 1750: #ifdef HAVE_GETRUSAGE
 1751: struct rusage usage;
 1752: getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &usage);
 1753: duser = timeval2us(&usage.ru_utime);
 1754: dsystem = timeval2us(&usage.ru_stime);
 1755: #else
 1756: struct timeval time1;
 1757: gettimeofday(&time1,NULL);
 1758: duser = timeval2us(&time1);
 1759: #ifndef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
 1760: dsystem = (DCell)0;
 1761: #else
 1762: dsystem=(DCell){0,0};
 1763: #endif
 1764: #endif
 1765: 
 1766: \+
 1767: 
 1768: \+floating
 1769: 
 1770: \g floating
 1771: 
 1772: comparisons(f, r1 r2, f_, r1, r2, gforth, gforth, float, gforth)
 1773: comparisons(f0, r, f_zero_, r, 0., float, gforth, float, gforth)
 1774: 
 1775: d>f	( d -- r )		float	d_to_f
 1776: #ifdef BUGGY_LONG_LONG
 1777: extern double ldexp(double x, int exp);
 1778: if (d.hi<0) {
 1779:   DCell d2=dnegate(d);
 1780:   r = -(ldexp((Float)d2.hi,CELL_BITS) + (Float)d2.lo);
 1781: } else
 1782:   r = ldexp((Float)d.hi,CELL_BITS) + (Float)d.lo;
 1783: #else
 1784: r = d;
 1785: #endif
 1786: 
 1787: f>d	( r -- d )		float	f_to_d
 1788: extern DCell double2ll(Float r);
 1789: d = double2ll(r);
 1790: 
 1791: f!	( r f_addr -- )	float	f_store
 1792: ""Store @i{r} into the float at address @i{f-addr}.""
 1793: *f_addr = r;
 1794: 
 1795: f@	( f_addr -- r )	float	f_fetch
 1796: ""@i{r} is the float at address @i{f-addr}.""
 1797: r = *f_addr;
 1798: 
 1799: df@	( df_addr -- r )	float-ext	d_f_fetch
 1800: ""Fetch the double-precision IEEE floating-point value @i{r} from the address @i{df-addr}.""
 1801: #ifdef IEEE_FP
 1802: r = *df_addr;
 1803: #else
 1804: !! df@
 1805: #endif
 1806: 
 1807: df!	( r df_addr -- )	float-ext	d_f_store
 1808: ""Store @i{r} as double-precision IEEE floating-point value to the
 1809: address @i{df-addr}.""
 1810: #ifdef IEEE_FP
 1811: *df_addr = r;
 1812: #else
 1813: !! df!
 1814: #endif
 1815: 
 1816: sf@	( sf_addr -- r )	float-ext	s_f_fetch
 1817: ""Fetch the single-precision IEEE floating-point value @i{r} from the address @i{sf-addr}.""
 1818: #ifdef IEEE_FP
 1819: r = *sf_addr;
 1820: #else
 1821: !! sf@
 1822: #endif
 1823: 
 1824: sf!	( r sf_addr -- )	float-ext	s_f_store
 1825: ""Store @i{r} as single-precision IEEE floating-point value to the
 1826: address @i{sf-addr}.""
 1827: #ifdef IEEE_FP
 1828: *sf_addr = r;
 1829: #else
 1830: !! sf!
 1831: #endif
 1832: 
 1833: f+	( r1 r2 -- r3 )	float	f_plus
 1834: r3 = r1+r2;
 1835: 
 1836: f-	( r1 r2 -- r3 )	float	f_minus
 1837: r3 = r1-r2;
 1838: 
 1839: f*	( r1 r2 -- r3 )	float	f_star
 1840: r3 = r1*r2;
 1841: 
 1842: f/	( r1 r2 -- r3 )	float	f_slash
 1843: r3 = r1/r2;
 1844: 
 1845: f**	( r1 r2 -- r3 )	float-ext	f_star_star
 1846: ""@i{r3} is @i{r1} raised to the @i{r2}th power.""
 1847: r3 = pow(r1,r2);
 1848: 
 1849: fnegate	( r1 -- r2 )	float	f_negate
 1850: r2 = - r1;
 1851: 
 1852: fdrop	( r -- )		float	f_drop
 1853: 
 1854: fdup	( r -- r r )	float	f_dupe
 1855: 
 1856: fswap	( r1 r2 -- r2 r1 )	float	f_swap
 1857: 
 1858: fover	( r1 r2 -- r1 r2 r1 )	float	f_over
 1859: 
 1860: frot	( r1 r2 r3 -- r2 r3 r1 )	float	f_rote
 1861: 
 1862: fnip	( r1 r2 -- r2 )	gforth	f_nip
 1863: 
 1864: ftuck	( r1 r2 -- r2 r1 r2 )	gforth	f_tuck
 1865: 
 1866: float+	( f_addr1 -- f_addr2 )	float	float_plus
 1867: ""@code{1 floats +}.""
 1868: f_addr2 = f_addr1+1;
 1869: 
 1870: floats	( n1 -- n2 )	float
 1871: ""@i{n2} is the number of address units of @i{n1} floats.""
 1872: n2 = n1*sizeof(Float);
 1873: 
 1874: floor	( r1 -- r2 )	float
 1875: ""Round towards the next smaller integral value, i.e., round toward negative infinity.""
 1876: /* !! unclear wording */
 1877: r2 = floor(r1);
 1878: 
 1879: fround	( r1 -- r2 )	gforth	f_round
 1880: ""Round to the nearest integral value.""
 1881: r2 = rint(r1);
 1882: 
 1883: fmax	( r1 r2 -- r3 )	float	f_max
 1884: if (r1<r2)
 1885:   r3 = r2;
 1886: else
 1887:   r3 = r1;
 1888: 
 1889: fmin	( r1 r2 -- r3 )	float	f_min
 1890: if (r1<r2)
 1891:   r3 = r1;
 1892: else
 1893:   r3 = r2;
 1894: 
 1895: represent	( r c_addr u -- n f1 f2 )	float
 1896: char *sig;
 1897: size_t siglen;
 1898: int flag;
 1899: int decpt;
 1900: sig=ecvt(r, u, &decpt, &flag);
 1901: n=(r==0. ? 1 : decpt);
 1902: f1=FLAG(flag!=0);
 1903: f2=FLAG(isdigit((unsigned)(sig[0]))!=0);
 1904: siglen=strlen(sig);
 1905: if (siglen>u) /* happens in glibc-2.1.3 if 999.. is rounded up */
 1906:   siglen=u;
 1907: memcpy(c_addr,sig,siglen);
 1908: memset(c_addr+siglen,f2?'0':' ',u-siglen);
 1909: 
 1910: >float	( c_addr u -- flag )	float	to_float
 1911: ""Actual stack effect: ( c_addr u -- r t | f ).  Attempt to convert the
 1912: character string @i{c-addr u} to internal floating-point
 1913: representation. If the string represents a valid floating-point number
 1914: @i{r} is placed on the floating-point stack and @i{flag} is
 1915: true. Otherwise, @i{flag} is false. A string of blanks is a special
 1916: case and represents the floating-point number 0.""
 1917: Float r;
 1918: flag = to_float(c_addr, u, &r);
 1919: if (flag) {
 1920:   IF_fpTOS(fp[0] = fpTOS);
 1921:   fp += -1;
 1922:   fpTOS = r;
 1923: }
 1924: 
 1925: fabs	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_abs
 1926: r2 = fabs(r1);
 1927: 
 1928: facos	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_a_cos
 1929: r2 = acos(r1);
 1930: 
 1931: fasin	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_a_sine
 1932: r2 = asin(r1);
 1933: 
 1934: fatan	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_a_tan
 1935: r2 = atan(r1);
 1936: 
 1937: fatan2	( r1 r2 -- r3 )	float-ext	f_a_tan_two
 1938: ""@i{r1/r2}=tan(@i{r3}). ANS Forth does not require, but probably
 1939: intends this to be the inverse of @code{fsincos}. In gforth it is.""
 1940: r3 = atan2(r1,r2);
 1941: 
 1942: fcos	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_cos
 1943: r2 = cos(r1);
 1944: 
 1945: fexp	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_e_x_p
 1946: r2 = exp(r1);
 1947: 
 1948: fexpm1	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_e_x_p_m_one
 1949: ""@i{r2}=@i{e}**@i{r1}@minus{}1""
 1950: #ifdef HAVE_EXPM1
 1951: extern double
 1952: #ifdef NeXT
 1953:               const
 1954: #endif
 1955:                     expm1(double);
 1956: r2 = expm1(r1);
 1957: #else
 1958: r2 = exp(r1)-1.;
 1959: #endif
 1960: 
 1961: fln	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_l_n
 1962: r2 = log(r1);
 1963: 
 1964: flnp1	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_l_n_p_one
 1965: ""@i{r2}=ln(@i{r1}+1)""
 1966: #ifdef HAVE_LOG1P
 1967: extern double
 1968: #ifdef NeXT
 1969:               const
 1970: #endif
 1971:                     log1p(double);
 1972: r2 = log1p(r1);
 1973: #else
 1974: r2 = log(r1+1.);
 1975: #endif
 1976: 
 1977: flog	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_log
 1978: ""The decimal logarithm.""
 1979: r2 = log10(r1);
 1980: 
 1981: falog	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_a_log
 1982: ""@i{r2}=10**@i{r1}""
 1983: extern double pow10(double);
 1984: r2 = pow10(r1);
 1985: 
 1986: fsin	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_sine
 1987: r2 = sin(r1);
 1988: 
 1989: fsincos	( r1 -- r2 r3 )	float-ext	f_sine_cos
 1990: ""@i{r2}=sin(@i{r1}), @i{r3}=cos(@i{r1})""
 1991: r2 = sin(r1);
 1992: r3 = cos(r1);
 1993: 
 1994: fsqrt	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_square_root
 1995: r2 = sqrt(r1);
 1996: 
 1997: ftan	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_tan
 1998: r2 = tan(r1);
 1999: :
 2000:  fsincos f/ ;
 2001: 
 2002: fsinh	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_cinch
 2003: r2 = sinh(r1);
 2004: :
 2005:  fexpm1 fdup fdup 1. d>f f+ f/ f+ f2/ ;
 2006: 
 2007: fcosh	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_cosh
 2008: r2 = cosh(r1);
 2009: :
 2010:  fexp fdup 1/f f+ f2/ ;
 2011: 
 2012: ftanh	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_tan_h
 2013: r2 = tanh(r1);
 2014: :
 2015:  f2* fexpm1 fdup 2. d>f f+ f/ ;
 2016: 
 2017: fasinh	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_a_cinch
 2018: r2 = asinh(r1);
 2019: :
 2020:  fdup fdup f* 1. d>f f+ fsqrt f/ fatanh ;
 2021: 
 2022: facosh	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_a_cosh
 2023: r2 = acosh(r1);
 2024: :
 2025:  fdup fdup f* 1. d>f f- fsqrt f+ fln ;
 2026: 
 2027: fatanh	( r1 -- r2 )	float-ext	f_a_tan_h
 2028: r2 = atanh(r1);
 2029: :
 2030:  fdup f0< >r fabs 1. d>f fover f- f/  f2* flnp1 f2/
 2031:  r> IF  fnegate  THEN ;
 2032: 
 2033: sfloats	( n1 -- n2 )	float-ext	s_floats
 2034: ""@i{n2} is the number of address units of @i{n1}
 2035: single-precision IEEE floating-point numbers.""
 2036: n2 = n1*sizeof(SFloat);
 2037: 
 2038: dfloats	( n1 -- n2 )	float-ext	d_floats
 2039: ""@i{n2} is the number of address units of @i{n1}
 2040: double-precision IEEE floating-point numbers.""
 2041: n2 = n1*sizeof(DFloat);
 2042: 
 2043: sfaligned	( c_addr -- sf_addr )	float-ext	s_f_aligned
 2044: ""@i{sf-addr} is the first single-float-aligned address greater
 2045: than or equal to @i{c-addr}.""
 2046: sf_addr = (SFloat *)((((Cell)c_addr)+(sizeof(SFloat)-1))&(-sizeof(SFloat)));
 2047: :
 2048:  [ 1 sfloats 1- ] Literal + [ -1 sfloats ] Literal and ;
 2049: 
 2050: dfaligned	( c_addr -- df_addr )	float-ext	d_f_aligned
 2051: ""@i{df-addr} is the first double-float-aligned address greater
 2052: than or equal to @i{c-addr}.""
 2053: df_addr = (DFloat *)((((Cell)c_addr)+(sizeof(DFloat)-1))&(-sizeof(DFloat)));
 2054: :
 2055:  [ 1 dfloats 1- ] Literal + [ -1 dfloats ] Literal and ;
 2056: 
 2057: v*	( f_addr1 nstride1 f_addr2 nstride2 ucount -- r ) gforth v_star
 2058: ""dot-product: r=v1*v2.  The first element of v1 is at f_addr1, the
 2059: next at f_addr1+nstride1 and so on (similar for v2). Both vectors have
 2060: ucount elements.""
 2061: r = v_star(f_addr1, nstride1, f_addr2, nstride2, ucount);
 2062: :
 2063:  >r swap 2swap swap 0e r> 0 ?DO
 2064:      dup f@ over + 2swap dup f@ f* f+ over + 2swap
 2065:  LOOP 2drop 2drop ; 
 2066: 
 2067: faxpy	( ra f_x nstridex f_y nstridey ucount -- )	gforth
 2068: ""vy=ra*vx+vy""
 2069: faxpy(ra, f_x, nstridex, f_y, nstridey, ucount);
 2070: :
 2071:  >r swap 2swap swap r> 0 ?DO
 2072:      fdup dup f@ f* over + 2swap dup f@ f+ dup f! over + 2swap
 2073:  LOOP 2drop 2drop fdrop ;
 2074: 
 2075: \+
 2076: 
 2077: \ The following words access machine/OS/installation-dependent
 2078: \   Gforth internals
 2079: \ !! how about environmental queries DIRECT-THREADED,
 2080: \   INDIRECT-THREADED, TOS-CACHED, FTOS-CACHED, CODEFIELD-DOES */
 2081: 
 2082: \ local variable implementation primitives
 2083: 
 2084: \+glocals
 2085: 
 2086: \g locals
 2087: 
 2088: @local#	( #noffset -- w )	gforth	fetch_local_number
 2089: w = *(Cell *)(lp+noffset);
 2090: 
 2091: @local0	( -- w )	new	fetch_local_zero
 2092: w = ((Cell *)lp)[0];
 2093: 
 2094: @local1	( -- w )	new	fetch_local_four
 2095: w = ((Cell *)lp)[1];
 2096: 
 2097: @local2	( -- w )	new	fetch_local_eight
 2098: w = ((Cell *)lp)[2];
 2099: 
 2100: @local3	( -- w )	new	fetch_local_twelve
 2101: w = ((Cell *)lp)[3];
 2102: 
 2103: \+floating
 2104: 
 2105: f@local#	( #noffset -- r )	gforth	f_fetch_local_number
 2106: r = *(Float *)(lp+noffset);
 2107: 
 2108: f@local0	( -- r )	new	f_fetch_local_zero
 2109: r = ((Float *)lp)[0];
 2110: 
 2111: f@local1	( -- r )	new	f_fetch_local_eight
 2112: r = ((Float *)lp)[1];
 2113: 
 2114: \+
 2115: 
 2116: laddr#	( #noffset -- c_addr )	gforth	laddr_number
 2117: /* this can also be used to implement lp@ */
 2118: c_addr = (Char *)(lp+noffset);
 2119: 
 2120: lp+!#	( #noffset -- )	gforth	lp_plus_store_number
 2121: ""used with negative immediate values it allocates memory on the
 2122: local stack, a positive immediate argument drops memory from the local
 2123: stack""
 2124: lp += noffset;
 2125: 
 2126: lp-	( -- )	new	minus_four_lp_plus_store
 2127: lp += -sizeof(Cell);
 2128: 
 2129: lp+	( -- )	new	eight_lp_plus_store
 2130: lp += sizeof(Float);
 2131: 
 2132: lp+2	( -- )	new	sixteen_lp_plus_store
 2133: lp += 2*sizeof(Float);
 2134: 
 2135: lp!	( c_addr -- )	gforth	lp_store
 2136: lp = (Address)c_addr;
 2137: 
 2138: >l	( w -- )	gforth	to_l
 2139: lp -= sizeof(Cell);
 2140: *(Cell *)lp = w;
 2141: 
 2142: \+floating
 2143: 
 2144: f>l	( r -- )	gforth	f_to_l
 2145: lp -= sizeof(Float);
 2146: *(Float *)lp = r;
 2147: 
 2148: fpick	( u -- r )		gforth
 2149: ""Actually the stack effect is @code{ r0 ... ru u -- r0 ... ru r0 }.""
 2150: r = fp[u+1]; /* +1, because update of fp happens before this fragment */
 2151: :
 2152:  floats fp@ + f@ ;
 2153: 
 2154: \+
 2155: \+
 2156: 
 2157: \+OS
 2158: 
 2159: \g syslib
 2160: 
 2161: define(`uploop',
 2162:        `pushdef(`$1', `$2')_uploop(`$1', `$2', `$3', `$4', `$5')`'popdef(`$1')')
 2163: define(`_uploop',
 2164:        `ifelse($1, `$3', `$5',
 2165: 	       `$4`'define(`$1', incr($1))_uploop(`$1', `$2', `$3', `$4', `$5')')')
 2166: \ argflist(argnum): Forth argument list
 2167: define(argflist,
 2168:        `ifelse($1, 0, `',
 2169:                `uploop(`_i', 1, $1, `format(`u%d ', _i)', `format(`u%d ', _i)')')')
 2170: \ argdlist(argnum): declare C's arguments
 2171: define(argdlist,
 2172:        `ifelse($1, 0, `',
 2173:                `uploop(`_i', 1, $1, `Cell, ', `Cell')')')
 2174: \ argclist(argnum): pass C's arguments
 2175: define(argclist,
 2176:        `ifelse($1, 0, `',
 2177:                `uploop(`_i', 1, $1, `format(`u%d, ', _i)', `format(`u%d', _i)')')')
 2178: \ icall(argnum)
 2179: define(icall,
 2180: `icall$1	( argflist($1)u -- uret )	gforth
 2181: uret = (SYSCALL(Cell(*)(argdlist($1)))u)(argclist($1));
 2182: 
 2183: ')
 2184: define(fcall,
 2185: `fcall$1	( argflist($1)u -- rret )	gforth
 2186: rret = (SYSCALL(Float(*)(argdlist($1)))u)(argclist($1));
 2187: 
 2188: ')
 2189: 
 2190: \ close ' to keep fontify happy
 2191: 
 2192: open-lib	( c_addr1 u1 -- u2 )	gforth	open_lib
 2193: #if defined(HAVE_LIBDL) || defined(HAVE_DLOPEN)
 2194: #ifndef RTLD_GLOBAL
 2195: #define RTLD_GLOBAL 0
 2196: #endif
 2197: u2=(UCell) dlopen(cstr(c_addr1, u1, 1), RTLD_GLOBAL | RTLD_LAZY);
 2198: #else
 2199: #  ifdef _WIN32
 2200: u2 = (Cell) GetModuleHandle(cstr(c_addr1, u1, 1));
 2201: #  else
 2202: #warning Define open-lib!
 2203: u2 = 0;
 2204: #  endif
 2205: #endif
 2206: 
 2207: lib-sym	( c_addr1 u1 u2 -- u3 )	gforth	lib_sym
 2208: #if defined(HAVE_LIBDL) || defined(HAVE_DLOPEN)
 2209: u3 = (UCell) dlsym((void*)u2,cstr(c_addr1, u1, 1));
 2210: #else
 2211: #  ifdef _WIN32
 2212: u3 = (Cell) GetProcAddress((HMODULE)u2, cstr(c_addr1, u1, 1));
 2213: #  else
 2214: #warning Define lib-sym!
 2215: u3 = 0;
 2216: #  endif
 2217: #endif
 2218: 
 2219: uploop(i, 0, 7, `icall(i)')
 2220: icall(20)
 2221: uploop(i, 0, 7, `fcall(i)')
 2222: fcall(20)
 2223: 
 2224: \+
 2225: 
 2226: wcall	( u -- )	gforth
 2227: IF_fpTOS(fp[0]=fpTOS);
 2228: FP=fp;
 2229: sp=(Cell*)(SYSCALL(Cell*(*)(Cell *, void *))u)(sp, &FP);
 2230: fp=FP;
 2231: IF_spTOS(spTOS=sp[0];)
 2232: IF_fpTOS(fpTOS=fp[0]);
 2233: 
 2234: \+peephole
 2235: 
 2236: \g peephole
 2237: 
 2238: compile-prim1 ( a_prim -- ) gforth compile_prim1
 2239: ""compile prim (incl. immargs) at @var{a_prim}""
 2240: compile_prim1(a_prim);
 2241: 
 2242: finish-code ( -- ) gforth finish_code
 2243: ""Perform delayed steps in code generation (branch resolution, I-cache
 2244: flushing).""
 2245: finish_code();
 2246: 
 2247: forget-dyncode ( c_code -- f ) gforth-internal forget_dyncode
 2248: f = forget_dyncode(c_code);
 2249: 
 2250: decompile-prim ( a_code -- a_prim ) gforth-internal decompile_prim
 2251: ""a_prim is the code address of the primitive that has been
 2252: compile_prim1ed to a_code""
 2253: a_prim = (Cell *)decompile_code((Label)a_code);
 2254: 
 2255: \ set-next-code and call2 do not appear in images and can be
 2256: \ renumbered arbitrarily
 2257: 
 2258: set-next-code ( #w -- ) gforth set_next_code
 2259: #ifdef NO_IP
 2260: next_code = (Label)w;
 2261: #endif
 2262: 
 2263: call2 ( #a_callee #a_ret_addr -- R:a_ret_addr ) gforth
 2264: /* call with explicit return address */
 2265: #ifdef NO_IP
 2266: INST_TAIL;
 2267: JUMP(a_callee);
 2268: #else
 2269: assert(0);
 2270: #endif
 2271: 
 2272: \+
 2273: 
 2274: include(peeprules.vmg)
 2275: 
 2276: \g end

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