File:  [gforth] / gforth / objects.fs
Revision 1.3: download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Fri Jun 6 17:27:57 1997 UTC (22 years, 7 months ago) by anton
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
Environmental query "gforth" now returns the version-string
dictionary-end and unused moved into the kernel/basics.fs
Minor gforth.el bug fixes
Major rewrite of objects.fs (not yet done)
fixed -trailing bug (with test in test/other.fs)
optimization of fields with offset 0 in struct.fs and compat/struct.fs
other changes in compat/struct.fs (not yet done)
added ansreports to compat/*.fs
documentation changes
allot now checks for dict overflow
named [IS] (compilation semantics of IS).
minor changes

\ yet another Forth objects extension

\ written by Anton Ertl 1996, 1997
\ public domain

\ This (in combination with compat/struct.fs) is in ANS Forth (with an
\ environmental dependence on case insensitivity; convert everything
\ to upper case for state sensitive systems).

\ If you don't use Gforth, you have to load compat/struct.fs first.
\ compat/struct.fs and this file together use the following words:

\ from CORE :
\ : 1- + swap invert and ; DOES> @ immediate drop Create >r rot r@ dup
\ , IF ELSE THEN r> chars cells 2* here - allot over execute POSTPONE
\ ?dup 2dup move 2! Variable 2@ ! ['] >body = 2drop ' +! Constant
\ recurse 1+ BEGIN 0= UNTIL negate Literal ." .
\ from CORE-EXT :
\ tuck nip true <> 0> erase Value :noname compile, 
\ from BLOCK-EXT :
\ \ 
\ from DOUBLE :
\ 2Constant 
\ from EXCEPTION :
\ throw catch 
\ from EXCEPTION-EXT :
\ abort" 
\ from FILE :
\ ( 
\ from FLOAT :
\ floats 
\ from FLOAT-EXT :
\ dfloats sfloats 
\ from LOCAL :
\ TO 
\ from MEMORY :
\ allocate resize free 
\ from SEARCH :
\ get-order set-order wordlist get-current set-current 

\ ---------------------------------------
\ MANUAL:

\ A class is defined like this:

\ <parent> class
\   ... field <name>
\   ...

\   ... inst-var <name>
\   ...

\ selector <name>

\ :noname ( ... object -- ... )
\   ... ;
\ method <name> \ new method
\ ...

\ :noname ( ... object -- ... )
\   ... ;
\ overrides <name> \ existing method
\ ...

\ end-class <name>

\ you can write fields, inst-vars, selectors, methods and overrides in
\ any order.

\ A call of a method looks like this:

\ ... <object> <method>

\ (<object> just needs to reside on the stack, there's no need to name it).

\ Instead of defining a method with ':noname ... ;', you can define it
\ also with 'm: ... ;m'. The difference is that with ':noname' the
\ "self" object is on the top of stack; with 'm:' you can get it with
\ 'this'. You should use 'this' only in an 'm:' method even though the
\ sample implementation does not enforce this.

\ The difference between a field and and inst-var is that the field
\ refers to an object at the top of data stack (i.e. a field has the
\ stack effect (object -- addr), whereas the inst-var refers to this
\ (i.e., it has the stack effect ( -- addr )); obviously, an inst-var
\ can only be used in an 'm:' method.

\ 'method' defines a new method selector and binds a method to it.

\ 'selector' defines a new method selector without binding a method to
\ it (you can use this to define abstract classes)

\ 'overrides' binds a different method (than the parent class) to an
\ existing method selector.

\ If you want to perform early binding, you can do it like this:

\ ... <object> [bind] <class> <method> \ compilation
\ ... <object> bind  <class> <method> \ interpretation

\ You can get at the method from the method selector and the class like
\ this:

\ bind' <class> <method>


\ An interface is defined like this:

\ interface
\   selector <name>
\ : noname ( ... object -- ... )
\     ... ;
\ method <name>
\   ...
\ end-interface <name>

\ You can only define new selectors in an interface definition, no
\ fields or instance variables. If you define a selector with
\ 'method', the corresponding method becomes the default method for
\ this selector.

\ An interface is used like this:

\ <parent> class
\   <interface> implementation
\   <interface> implementation

\ :noname ( ... -- ... )
\     ... ;
\ overrides <selector>

\ end-class name

\ a class inherits all interfaces of its parent. An 'implementation'
\ means that the class also implements the specified interface (If the
\ interface is already implemented by the parent class, an
\ 'implementation' phrase resets the methods to the defaults.

\ 'overrides' can also be used to override interface methods. It has
\ to be used after announcing the 'implementation' of the
\ interface. Apart from this, 'implementation' can be freely mixed
\ with the other stuff (but I recommend to put all 'implementation'
\ phrases at the beginning of the class definition).

\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

\ needs struct.fs

\ helper words

: -rot ( a b c -- c a b )
    rot rot ;

: under+ ( a b c -- a+b c )
    rot + swap ;

: perform ( ... addr -- ... )
    @ execute ;

: ?dup-if ( compilation: -- orig ; run-time: n -- n|  )
    POSTPONE ?dup POSTPONE if ; immediate

: save-mem	( addr1 u -- addr2 u ) \ gforth
    \ copy a memory block into a newly allocated region in the heap
    swap >r
    dup allocate throw
    swap 2dup r> -rot move ;

: resize ( a-addr1 u -- a-addr2 ior ) \ gforth
    over
    if
	resize
    else
	nip allocate
    then ;

: extend-mem	( addr1 u1 u -- addr addr2 u2 )
    \ extend memory block allocated from the heap by u aus
    \ the (possibly reallocated piece is addr2 u2, the extension is at addr )
    over >r + dup >r resize throw
    r> over r> + -rot ;

: 2,	( w1 w2 -- ) \ gforth
    here 2 cells allot 2! ;

\ data structures

struct
    1 cells: field object-map
end-struct object-struct

struct
    2 cells: field interface-map
    1 cells: field interface-map-offset \ aus
      \ difference between where interface-map points and where
      \ object-map points (0 for non-classes)
    1 cells: field interface-offset \ aus
      \ offset of interface map-pointer in class-map (0 for classes)
end-struct interface-struct

interface-struct
    1 cells: field class-parent
    1 cells: field class-wordlist \ instance variables and other private words
    2 cells: field class-inst-size \ size and alignment
end-struct class-struct

struct
    1 cells: field selector-offset \ the offset within the (interface) map
    1 cells: field selector-interface \ the interface offset
end-struct selector-struct

\ maps are not defined explicitly; they have the following structure:

\ pointers to interface maps (for classes) <- interface-map points here
\ interface/class-struct pointer           <- (object-)map  points here
\ xts of methods 


\ code

\ selectors and methods

variable current-interface

: no-method ( -- )
    true abort" no method defined for this object/selector combination" ;

: do-class-method ( -- )
does> ( ... object -- ... )
    ( object )
    selector-offset @ over object-map @ + ( object xtp ) perform ;

: do-interface-method ( -- )
does> ( ... object -- ... )
    ( object selector-body )
    2dup selector-interface @ ( object selector-body object interface-offset )
    swap object-map @ + @ ( object selector-body map )
    swap selector-offset @ + perform ;

: method ( xt "name" -- )
    \ define selector with method xt
    create
    current-interface @ interface-map 2@ ( xt map-addr map-size )
    dup current-interface @ interface-map-offset @ - ,
    1 cells extend-mem current-interface @ interface-map 2! ! ( )
    current-interface @ interface-offset @ dup ,
    ( 0<> ) if
	do-interface-method
    else
	do-class-method
    then ;

: selector ( "name" -- )
    \ define a method selector for later overriding in subclasses
    ['] no-method method ;

: interface-override! ( xt sel-xt interface-map -- )
    \ xt is the new method for the selector sel-xt in interface-map
    swap >body ( xt map selector-body )
    selector-offset @ + ! ;

: class->map ( class -- map )
    \ compute the (object-)map for the class
    dup interface-map 2@ drop swap interface-map-offset @ + ;

: unique-interface-map ( class-map offset -- )
    \ if the interface at offset in class map is the same as its parent,
    \ copy it to make it unique; used for implementing a copy-on-write policy
    over @ class-parent @ class->map ( class-map offset parent-map )
    over + @ >r  \ the map for the interface for the parent
    + dup @ ( mapp map )
    dup r> =
    if
	@ interface-map 2@ save-mem drop
	swap !
    else
	2drop
    then ;

: class-override! ( xt sel-xt class-map -- )
    \ xt is the new method for the selector sel-xt in class-map
    over >body ( xt sel-xt class-map selector-body )
    selector-interface @ ( xt sel-xt class-map offset )
    ?dup-if \ the selector is for an interface
	2dup unique-interface-map
	+ @
    then
    interface-override! ;

: overrides ( xt "selector" -- )
    \ replace default method "method" in the current class with xt
    \ must not be used during an interface definition
    ' current-interface @ class->map class-override! ;

\ interfaces

\ every interface gets a different offset; the latest one is stored here
variable last-interface-offset 0 last-interface-offset !

: interface ( -- )
    interface-struct struct-allot >r
    0 0 r@ interface-map 2!
    -1 cells last-interface-offset +!
    last-interface-offset @ r@ interface-offset !
    0 r@ interface-map-offset !
    r> current-interface ! ;

: end-interface-noname ( -- interface )
    current-interface @ ;

: end-interface ( "name" -- )
    \ name execution: ( -- interface )
    end-interface-noname constant ;

\ classes

: add-class-order ( n1 class -- wid1 ... widn n+n1 )
    dup >r class-parent @
    ?dup-if
	recurse \ first add the search order for the parent class
    then
    r> class-wordlist @ swap 1+ ;

: push-order ( class -- )
    \ add the class's wordlist to the search-order (in front)
    >r get-order r> add-class-order set-order ;

: class ( parent-class -- size align )
    class-struct struct-allot >r
    dup interface-map 2@ save-mem r@ interface-map 2!
    dup interface-map-offset @ r@ interface-map-offset !
    r@ dup class->map !
    0 r@ interface-offset !
    dup r@ class-parent !
    wordlist r@ class-wordlist !
    r@ current-interface !
    r> push-order
    class-inst-size 2@ ;

: remove-class-order ( wid1 ... widn n+n1 class -- n1 )
    \ note: no checks, whether the wordlists are correct
    begin
	>r nip 1-
	r> class-parent @ dup 0=
    until
    drop ;

: drop-order ( class -- )
    \ note: no checks, whether the wordlists are correct
    >r get-order r> remove-class-order set-order ;

: end-class-noname ( size align -- class )
    current-interface @ dup drop-order class-inst-size 2!
    end-interface-noname ;

: end-class ( size align "name" -- )
    \ name execution: ( -- class )
    end-class-noname constant ;

\ visibility control

variable public-wordlist

: private ( -- )
    current-interface @ class-wordlist @
    dup get-current <>
    if \ we are not private already
	get-current public-wordlist !
    then
    set-current ;

: public ( -- )
    public-wordlist @ set-current ;

\ classes that implement interfaces

: front-extend-mem ( addr1 u1 u -- addr addr2 u2 )
    \ extend memory block allocated from the heap by u aus, with the
    \ old stuff coming at the end
    2dup + dup >r allocate throw ( addr1 u1 u addr2 ; R: u2 )
    dup >r + >r over r> rot move ( addr1 ; R: u2 addr2 )
    free throw
    r> dup r> ;
    
: implementation ( interface -- )
    dup interface-offset @ ( interface offset )
    current-interface @ interface-map-offset @ negate over - dup 0>
    if \ the interface does not fit in the present class-map
	>r current-interface @ interface-map 2@
	r@ front-extend-mem
	current-interface @ interface-map 2!
	r@ erase
	dup negate current-interface @ interface-map-offset !
	r>
    then ( interface offset n )
    drop >r
    interface-map 2@ save-mem drop ( map )
    current-interface @ dup interface-map 2@ drop
    swap interface-map-offset @ + r> + ! ;

\ this/self, instance variables etc.

\ rename "this" into "self" if you are a Smalltalk fiend
0 value this ( -- object )
: to-this ( object -- )
    TO this ;

\ another implementation, if you don't have (fast) values
\ variable thisp
\ : this ( -- object )
\     thisp @ ;
\ : to-this ( object -- )
\     thisp ! ;

: m: ( -- xt colon-sys ) ( run-time: object -- )
    :noname 
    POSTPONE this
    POSTPONE >r
    POSTPONE to-this ;

: ;m ( colon-sys -- ) ( run-time: -- )
    POSTPONE r>
    POSTPONE to-this
    POSTPONE ; ; immediate

: catch ( ... xt -- ... n )
    \ make it safe to call CATCH within a method.
    \ should also be done with all words containing CATCH.
    this >r catch r> to-this ;

\ the following is a bit roundabout; this is caused by the standard
\ disallowing to change the compilation wordlist between CREATE and
\ DOES> (see RFI 3)

: inst-something ( size1 align1 size align xt "name" -- size2 align2 )
    \ xt ( -- ) typically is for a DOES>-word
    get-current >r
    current-interface @ class-wordlist @ set-current
    >r create-field r> execute
    r> set-current ;

: do-inst-var ( -- )
does> \ name execution: ( -- addr )
    ( addr1 ) @ this + ;

: inst-var ( size1 align1 size align "name" -- size2 align2 )
    \ name execution: ( -- addr )
    ['] do-inst-var inst-something ;

: do-inst-value ( -- )
does> \ name execution: ( -- w )
    ( addr1 ) @ this + @ ;

: inst-value ( size1 align1 "name" -- size2 align2 )
    \ name execution: ( -- w )
    \ a cell-sized value-flavoured instance field
    1 cells: ['] do-inst-value inst-something ;

: <to-inst> ( w xt -- )
    >body @ this + ! ;

: to-inst ( w "name" -- )
    ' <to-inst> ;

: [to-inst] ( compile-time: "name" -- ; run-time: w -- )
    ' >body @ POSTPONE literal
    POSTPONE this
    POSTPONE +
    POSTPONE ! ; immediate

\ early binding stuff

\ this is not generally used, only where you want to do something like
\ superclass method invocation (so that you don't have to name your methods)

: <bind> ( class selector-xt -- xt )
    >body swap class->map over selector-interface @
    ?dup-if
	+ @
    then
    swap selector-offset @ + @ ;

: bind' ( "class" "selector" -- xt )
    ' execute ' <bind> ;

: bind ( ... object "class" "selector" -- ... )
    bind' execute ;

: [bind] ( compile-time: "class" "selector" -- ; run-time: ... object -- ... )
    bind' compile, ; immediate

: [super] ( compile-time: "selector" -- ; run-time: ... object -- ... )
    \ same as `[bind] "parent" "selector"', where "parent" is the
    \ parent class of the current class
    current-interface @ class-parent @ ' <bind> compile, ; immediate

\ the object class

\ because OBJECT has no parent class, we have to build it by hand
\ (instead of with class)

wordlist
here current-interface !
current-interface 1 cells save-mem 2, \ map now contains a pointer to class
0 ,
0 , 
0 , \ parent
, \ wordlist
object-struct 2, \ instance size
object-struct

:noname ( object -- )
    drop ;
method construct ( ... object -- )

:noname ( object -- )
    ." object:" dup . ." class:" object-map @ @ . ;
method print

end-class object

\ constructing objects

: init-object ( ... class object -- )
    swap class->map over object-map ! ( ... object )
    construct ;

: xt-new ( ... class xt -- object )
    \ makes a new object, using XT ( size align -- addr ) to allocate memory
    over class-inst-size 2@ rot execute
    dup >r init-object r> ;

: dict-new ( ... class -- object )
    \ makes a new object HERE in dictionary
    ['] struct-allot xt-new ;

: heap-new ( ... class -- object )
    \ makes a new object in ALLOCATEd memory
    ['] struct-alloc xt-new ;

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