Diff for /gforth/Attic/gforth.ds between versions 1.36 and 1.40

version 1.36, 1996/09/23 08:52:47 version 1.40, 1996/11/11 16:59:16
Line 86  personal machines. This manual correspon Line 86  personal machines. This manual correspon
 * Other Books::                 Things you might want to read  * Other Books::                 Things you might want to read
 * Invocation::                  Starting Gforth  * Invocation::                  Starting Gforth
 * Words::                       Forth words available in Gforth  * Words::                       Forth words available in Gforth
   * Tools::                       Programming tools
 * ANS conformance::             Implementation-defined options etc.  * ANS conformance::             Implementation-defined options etc.
 * Model::                       The abstract machine of Gforth  * Model::                       The abstract machine of Gforth
 * Integrating Gforth::          Forth as scripting language for applications.  * Integrating Gforth::          Forth as scripting language for applications.
Line 600  Loads the Forth image @var{file} instead Line 601  Loads the Forth image @var{file} instead
   
 @item --path @var{path}  @item --path @var{path}
 @item -p @var{path}  @item -p @var{path}
 Uses @var{path} for searching the image file and Forth source code  Uses @var{path} for searching the image file and Forth source code files
 files instead of the default in the environment variable  instead of the default in the environment variable @code{GFORTHPATH} or
 @code{GFORTHPATH} or the path specified at installation time (typically  the path specified at installation time (e.g.,
 @file{/usr/local/lib/gforth:.}). A path is given as a @code{:}-separated  @file{/usr/local/share/gforth/0.2.0:.}). A path is given as a list of
 list.  directories, separated by @samp{:} (on Unix) or @samp{;} (on other OSs).
   
 @item --dictionary-size @var{size}  @item --dictionary-size @var{size}
 @item -m @var{size}  @item -m @var{size}
Line 662  the user initialization file @file{.gfor Line 663  the user initialization file @file{.gfor
 option @code{--no-rc} is given; this file is first searched in @file{.},  option @code{--no-rc} is given; this file is first searched in @file{.},
 then in @file{~}, then in the normal path (see above).  then in @file{~}, then in the normal path (see above).
   
 @node Words, ANS conformance, Invocation, Top  @node Words, Tools, Invocation, Top
 @chapter Forth Words  @chapter Forth Words
   
 @menu  @menu
Line 673  then in @file{~}, then in the normal pat Line 674  then in @file{~}, then in the normal pat
 * Control Structures::            * Control Structures::          
 * Locals::                        * Locals::                      
 * Defining Words::                * Defining Words::              
   * Tokens for Words::            
 * Wordlists::                     * Wordlists::                   
 * Files::                         * Files::                       
 * Blocks::                        * Blocks::                      
Line 1962  programs harder to read, and easier to m Line 1964  programs harder to read, and easier to m
 merit of this syntax is that it is easy to implement using the ANS Forth  merit of this syntax is that it is easy to implement using the ANS Forth
 locals wordset.  locals wordset.
   
 @node Defining Words, Wordlists, Locals, Words  @node Defining Words, Tokens for Words, Locals, Words
 @section Defining Words  @section Defining Words
   
 @menu  @menu
Line 2367  accessing the header structure usually k Line 2369  accessing the header structure usually k
 @code{' word >body} also gives you the body of a word created with  @code{' word >body} also gives you the body of a word created with
 @code{create-interpret/compile}.  @code{create-interpret/compile}.
   
 @node Wordlists, Files, Defining Words, Words  @node Tokens for Words, Wordlists, Defining Words, Words
   @section Tokens for Words
   
   This chapter describes the creation and use of tokens that represent
   words on the stack (and in data space).
   
   Named words have interpretation and compilation semantics. Unnamed words
   just have execution semantics.
   
   An @dfn{execution token} represents the execution semantics of an
   unnamed word. An execution token occupies one cell. As explained in
   section @ref{Supplying names}, the execution token of the last words
   defined can be produced with
   
   short-lastxt
   
   You can perform the semantics represented by an execution token with
   doc-execute
   You can compile the word with
   doc-compile,
   
   In Gforth, the abstract data type @emph{execution token} is implemented
   as CFA (code field address).
   
   The interpretation semantics of a named word are also represented by an
   execution token. You can get it with
   
   doc-[']
   doc-'
   
   For literals, you use @code{'} in interpreted code and @code{[']} in
   compiled code. Gforth's @code{'} and @code{[']} behave somewhat unusual
   by complaining about compile-only words. To get an execution token for a
   compiling word @var{X}, use @code{COMP' @var{X} drop} or @code{[COMP']
   @var{X} drop}.
   
   The compilation semantics are represented by a @dfn{compilation token}
   consisting of two cells: @var{w xt}. The top cell @var{xt} is an
   execution token. The compilation semantics represented by the
   compilation token can be performed with @code{execute}, which consumes
   the whole compilation token, with an additional stack effect determined
   by the represented compilation semantics.
   
   doc-[comp']
   doc-comp'
   
   You can compile the compilation semantics with @code{postpone,}. I.e.,
   @code{COMP' @var{word} POSTPONE,} is equivalent to @code{POSTPONE
   @var{word}}.
   
   doc-postpone,
   
   At present, the @var{w} part of a compilation token is an execution
   token, and the @var{xt} part represents either @code{execute} or
   @code{compile,}. However, don't rely on that kowledge, unless necessary;
   we may introduce unusual compilation tokens in the future (e.g.,
   compilation tokens representing the compilation semantics of literals).
   
   Named words are also represented by the @dfn{name token}. The abstract
   data type @emph{name token} is implemented as NFA (name field address).
   
   doc-find-name
   doc-name>int
   doc-name?int
   doc-name>comp
   doc-name>string
   
   @node Wordlists, Files, Tokens for Words, Words
 @section Wordlists  @section Wordlists
   
 @node Files, Blocks, Wordlists, Words  @node Files, Blocks, Wordlists, Words
Line 2484  probably more appropriate than an assert Line 2553  probably more appropriate than an assert
 Gforth provides some words for defining primitives (words written in  Gforth provides some words for defining primitives (words written in
 machine code), and for defining the the machine-code equivalent of  machine code), and for defining the the machine-code equivalent of
 @code{DOES>}-based defining words. However, the machine-independent  @code{DOES>}-based defining words. However, the machine-independent
 nature of Gforth poses a few problems: First of all. Gforth runs on  nature of Gforth poses a few problems: First of all, Gforth runs on
 several architectures, so it can provide no standard assembler. What's  several architectures, so it can provide no standard assembler. What's
 worse is that the register allocation not only depends on the processor,  worse is that the register allocation not only depends on the processor,
 but also on the @code{gcc} version and options used.  but also on the @code{gcc} version and options used.
Line 2580  with @code{>DOES-CODE}. If the word was Line 2649  with @code{>DOES-CODE}. If the word was
 returned is different from 0 and identifies the @code{DOES>} used by the  returned is different from 0 and identifies the @code{DOES>} used by the
 defining word.  defining word.
   
 @node ANS conformance, Model, Words, Top  @node Tools, ANS conformance, Words, Top
   @chapter Tools
   
   @menu
   * ANS Report::                  Report the words used, sorted by wordset
   @end menu
   
   See also @ref{Emacs and Gforth}.
   
   @node ANS Report,  , Tools, Tools
   @section @file{ans-report.fs}: Report the words used, sorted by wordset
   
   If you want to label a Forth program as ANS Forth Program, you must
   document which wordsets the program uses; for extension wordsets, it is
   helpful to list the words the program requires from these wordsets
   (because Forth systems are allowed to provide only some words of them).
   
   The @file{ans-report.fs} tool makes it easy for you to determine which
   words from which wordset and which non-ANS words your application
   uses. You simply have to include @file{ans-report.fs} before loading the
   program you want to check. After loading your program, you can get the
   report with @code{print-ans-report}. A typical use is to run this as
   batch job like this:
   @example
   gforth ans-report.fs myprog.fs -e "print-ans-report bye"
   @end example
   
   The output looks like this (for @file{compat/control.fs}):
   @example
   The program uses the following words
   from CORE :
   : POSTPONE THEN ; immediate ?dup IF 0= 
   from BLOCK-EXT :
   \ 
   from FILE :
   ( 
   @end example
   
   @subsection Caveats
   
   Note that @file{ans-report.fs} just checks which words are used, not whether
   they are used in an ANS Forth conforming way!
   
   Some words are defined in several wordsets in the
   standard. @file{ans-report.fs} reports them for only one of the
   wordsets, and not necessarily the one you expect. It depends on usage
   which wordset is the right one to specify. E.g., if you only use the
   compilation semantics of @code{S"}, it is a Core word; if you also use
   its interpretation semantics, it is a File word.
   
   
   @node ANS conformance, Model, Tools, Top
 @chapter ANS conformance  @chapter ANS conformance
   
 To the best of our knowledge, Gforth is an  To the best of our knowledge, Gforth is an
Line 3145  The least significant cell of @var{d} is Line 3265  The least significant cell of @var{d} is
 The codes -256@minus{}-511 are used for reporting signals (see  The codes -256@minus{}-511 are used for reporting signals (see
 @file{errore.fs}). The codes -512@minus{}-2047 are used for OS errors  @file{errore.fs}). The codes -512@minus{}-2047 are used for OS errors
 (for file and memory allocation operations). The mapping from OS error  (for file and memory allocation operations). The mapping from OS error
 numbers to throw code is -512@minus{}@var{errno}. One side effect of  numbers to throw code is -512@minus{}@code{errno}. One side effect of
 this mapping is that undefined OS errors produce a message with a  this mapping is that undefined OS errors produce a message with a
 strange number; e.g., @code{-1000 THROW} results in @code{Unknown error  strange number; e.g., @code{-1000 THROW} results in @code{Unknown error
 488} on my system.  488} on my system.
Line 3262  of open files available. This should not Line 3382  of open files available. This should not
 @code{/line}. Currently 255.  @code{/line}. Currently 255.
   
 @item methods of mapping block ranges to files:  @item methods of mapping block ranges to files:
 Currently, the block words automatically access the file  By default, blocks are accessed in the file @file{blocks.fb} in the
 @file{blocks.fb} in the currend working directory. More sophisticated  current working directory. The file can be switched with @code{USE}.
 methods could be implemented if there is demand (and a volunteer).  
   
 @item number of string buffers provided by @code{S"}:  @item number of string buffers provided by @code{S"}:
 1  1
Line 3360  with the command-line option @code{-f}. Line 3479  with the command-line option @code{-f}.
 @table @i  @table @i
   
 @item @code{df@@} or @code{df!} used with an address that is not double-float  aligned:  @item @code{df@@} or @code{df!} used with an address that is not double-float  aligned:
 System-dependent. Typically results in an alignment fault like other  System-dependent. Typically results in a @code{-23 THROW} like other
 alignment violations.  alignment violations.
   
 @item @code{f@@} or @code{f!} used with an address that is not float  aligned:  @item @code{f@@} or @code{f!} used with an address that is not float  aligned:
 System-dependent. Typically results in an alignment fault like other  System-dependent. Typically results in a @code{-23 THROW} like other
 alignment violations.  alignment violations.
   
 @item Floating-point result out of range:  @item Floating-point result out of range:
Line 3512  intended as throw codes. They typically Line 3631  intended as throw codes. They typically
 @table @i  @table @i
   
 @item ending sequence for input following @code{;code} and @code{code}:  @item ending sequence for input following @code{;code} and @code{code}:
 Not implemented (yet).  @code{end-code}
   
 @item manner of processing input following @code{;code} and @code{code}:  @item manner of processing input following @code{;code} and @code{code}:
 Not implemented (yet).  The @code{assembler} vocabulary is pushed on the search order stack, and
   the input is processed by the text interpreter, (starting) in interpret
   state.
   
 @item search order capability for @code{EDITOR} and @code{ASSEMBLER}:  @item search order capability for @code{EDITOR} and @code{ASSEMBLER}:
 Not implemented (yet). If they were implemented, they would use the  The ANS Forth search order word set.
 search order wordset.  
   
 @item source and format of display by @code{SEE}:  @item source and format of display by @code{SEE}:
 The source for @code{see} is the intermediate code used by the inner  The source for @code{see} is the intermediate code used by the inner
Line 3548  unlucky, this ambiguous condition is not Line 3668  unlucky, this ambiguous condition is not
 Not implemented (yet).  Not implemented (yet).
   
 @item @var{name} not defined via @code{CREATE}:  @item @var{name} not defined via @code{CREATE}:
 @code{;code} is not implemented (yet). If it were, it would behave like  @code{;code} behaves like @code{DOES>} in this respect, i.e., it changes
 @code{DOES>} in this respect, i.e., change the execution semantics of  the execution semantics of the last defined word no matter how it was
 the last defined word no matter how it was defined.  defined.
   
 @item @code{POSTPONE} applied to @code{[IF]}:  @item @code{POSTPONE} applied to @code{[IF]}:
 After defining @code{: X POSTPONE [IF] ; IMMEDIATE}. @code{X} is  After defining @code{: X POSTPONE [IF] ; IMMEDIATE}. @code{X} is
Line 4145  relative      Win32-    NT       eforth Line 4265  relative      Win32-    NT       eforth
   time  Gforth Forth Forth eforth  +opt   PFE Forth  TILE    time  Gforth Forth Forth eforth  +opt   PFE Forth  TILE
 sieve     1.00  1.39  1.14   1.39  0.85  1.58  3.18  8.58  sieve     1.00  1.39  1.14   1.39  0.85  1.58  3.18  8.58
 bubble    1.00  1.31  1.41   1.48  0.88  1.50        3.88  bubble    1.00  1.31  1.41   1.48  0.88  1.50        3.88
 matmul    1.00  1.47  1.35   1.46  1.16  1.58        4.09  matmul    1.00  1.47  1.35   1.46  0.74  1.58        4.09
 fib       1.00  1.52  1.34   1.22  1.13  1.74  2.99  4.30  fib       1.00  1.52  1.34   1.22  0.86  1.74  2.99  4.30
 @end example  @end example
   
 You may find the good performance of Gforth compared with the systems  You may find the good performance of Gforth compared with the systems
Line 4218  one of Gforth's first users, in mid-1993 Line 4338  one of Gforth's first users, in mid-1993
 with their continuous feedback. Lennart Benshop contributed  with their continuous feedback. Lennart Benshop contributed
 @file{glosgen.fs}, while Stuart Ramsden has been working on automatic  @file{glosgen.fs}, while Stuart Ramsden has been working on automatic
 support for calling C libraries. Helpful comments also came from Paul  support for calling C libraries. Helpful comments also came from Paul
 Kleinrubatscher, Christian Pirker, Dirk Zoller and Marcel Hendrix.  Kleinrubatscher, Christian Pirker, Dirk Zoller, Marcel Hendrix, John
   Wavrik, Barrie Stott and Marc de Groot.
   
 Gforth also owes a lot to the authors of the tools we used (GCC, CVS,  Gforth also owes a lot to the authors of the tools we used (GCC, CVS,
 and autoconf, among others), and to the creators of the Internet: Gforth  and autoconf, among others), and to the creators of the Internet: Gforth

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